CH40_2_ - Animal Tissues Definition of Animals Tissues...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Tissues Definition of Animals Tissues Epithelia Cystic Fibrosis, a disease of epithelia Carcinoma, a cancer of epithelia Connective Tissue Muscle Nerve Animal Tissues Organs and Organ Systems Animal Size and Shape Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 1 Animals Defined Multicellular eukaryotes Heterotrophic by ingestion Energy stores: carbohydrates as glycogen fats as adipose as glycogen; fats as adipose tissue tissue Animals Defined Cell structure maintained by Cell structure maintained by internal internal cytoskeleton; no cell walls Electrically excitable tissues: Electrically excitable tissues: nerves nerves and muscle Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 2 Animals Defined Mobile with determinate Mobile with determinate growth growth Organization: Tissue Organ Organ system Animal Animal Tissues Tissues - Groups of cells with Tissues Groups of cells with a common structure and common function Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 3 Animal Tissues Epithelia - cover organs and cavities; transport fluids; cavities; transport fluids; barrier barrier against injury and/or invasion Connective Tissue - binds and Tissue binds and supports supports other tissues; comcomposed of cells embedded in extensive extracellular matrix Animal Tissues Muscle - movement; most abundant tissue in most ti animals animals Nervous Tissue - rapid processing of information and processing of information and control. control. Both electrical and chemical information. Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 4 Fig. 40-5: 40Epithelia Fig. 40-5: Simple Columnar Epithelium 40Location: Digestive Syste System Roles: Transport Mucus Secretion Basement Membrane Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 5 Fig. 7-7: Extracellular Matrix 7- Fig. 6-31: 6Simple Columnar Epithelial Cell Microvilli (Brush(Brush-Border) Basement Membrane Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 6 Fig. 6-26: 6Epithelial Microvilli (TEM) (Brush(Brush-Border) Simple Columnar Epithelium (LM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 7 Fig. 40-5: Pseudostratified Ciliated Epithelium 40Location: Airways Roles: Mucus Flow Mucus Secretion Fig. 6-24: Cilia and Flagella (TEM) 6- Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 8 Pseudostratified Ciliated Epithelium (LM) Fig. 40-5: Simple Cuboidal Epithelium 40Location: Glands Basement Membrane Roles: Secretion Absorption Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 9 Simple Cuboidal Epithelium (LM) Fig. 40-5: Simple Squamous Epithelium 40Location: Alveoli Blood Vessels Vessels Roles: Allow Diffusion Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 10 Fig. 40-5: Stratified Squamous Epithelium 40Location: Trachea Skin Roles: Protection from abrasion Mucus Secretion Fig. 40-5: Stratified Columnar Epithelium 40Location: Bladder Roles: Transport Barrier Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 11 Fig. 40-5: 40Epithelia Cystic Fibrosis An Epithelial Disease S mptoms Sy Recurrent lung infections Lack of pancreatic enzymes Salty sweat Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 12 Welsh, 1995 Welsh, 1995 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 13 Welsh, 1995 Lung: Flow of Mucus Normal CF Wine, 1999 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 14 Cystic Fibrosis An Epithelial Disease Cause Inherited defect in ability of certain epithelia to secrete fluids, especially lung and pancreatic especially lung and pancreatic duct duct Mutated gene for a Cl- channel Cl- CFTR F508 Welsh, 1995 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 15 Wine, 1999 Reduced Secretion Hypothesis Wine, 1999 Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 16 Cystic Fibrosis An Epithelial Disease Treatment Frequent “pounding” of chest to loosen thick mucus in lungs Antibiotics Digestive enzyme supplements Last Resort: lung transplant Carcinomas Cancers of Epithelia Epithelial cells are replaced throughout throughout life. The frequent mitotic divisions of replacement cells makes them more likely to cells makes them more likely to accrue accrue genetic errors, some of which cause cancer. Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 17 Fig. 40-5: Connective Tissue 40- Fig. 40-5: Bone 40- Central Canal Lacuna Matrix Haversian System Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 18 Fig. 40-5: Loose Connective Tissue 40- Elastic Reticular Collagen Macrophage Fibroblast Fig. 7-7: Extracellular Matrix 7- Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 19 Collagen Loose Connective Tissue (LM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 20 Fig. 40-5: Adipose Tissue 40- Fat Fat Droplets Droplets Adipose Tissue (LM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 21 Genetically Obese vs. Normal Mouse Genetically Engineered Obese Mouse Leptin -/- Leptin +/+ Fig. 40-5: Blood 40- WBCs Platelets RBCs Plasma (ECM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 22 Fig. 40-5: Cartilage 40- Chondrocytes Chondroitin SO4 Matrix Lacuna Cartilage (LM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 23 Fig. 40-5: Fibrous Connective Tissue 40Location: Tendons Ligaments Fibroblasts Nuclei Fibrous Connective Tissue (LM) Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 24 Collagen Fig. 40-5: 40Muscle Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 25 Fig. 40-5: 40Skeletal Muscle Location: Attached to bones Properties: Voluntary Striated Cells fused into tubes Muscle cell cell Actin filament Myosin filament Myosin arm Myosin motors in muscle cell contraction Fig. 6-27a Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 26 Skeletal Muscle (LM) Fig. 40-5: 40Cardiac Muscle Location: Heart Properties: Involuntary Striated Single Cells Electrical connections Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 27 Cardiac Muscle (LM) Fig. 40-5: Smooth Muscle 40Location: Organs Blood vessels Eyes Properties: Involuntary NonNon-Striated Long slow Long, slow actions actions May have electrical connections Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 28 Smooth Muscle (LM) Fig. 40-5b: 40Neuron Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 29 Fig. 40-6: Tissue Layers of Stomach (SEM) 40Lumen: Contents of stomach Mucosa: Epithelial lining of lumen connective tissue smooth lumen, connective tissue, smooth muscle Submucosa: Connective tissue, blood vessels nerves blood vessels, nerves Muscularis: Smooth muscle, nerves Serosa: Connective tissue & epithelium Tissue Layers of Stomach (Low Mag LM) Lumen Mucosa Submucosa Muscularis Serosa Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 30 Tissue Layers of Stomach (High Mag LM) Lumen Mucosa Submucosa Organ Combines several tissues into a functional unit functional many organs are composed of tissue layers examples: stomach, skin Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 31 Organ System Several organs that perform a coordinated task digestive system composed of mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, anus ll other organ systems: circulatory, respiratory, excretory Organ Systems Digestive System Respiratory System Circulatory System Excretory System Endocrine System Nervous System Immune System Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 32 Organ Systems Not Covered Muscular Integumentary (skin) Reproductive Skeletal Animal Size and Shape Surface area to volume ratio Surface area to volume ratio is is critical for exchange of materials with environment Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 33 Animal Size and Shape Simple multicellular animals: Simple multicellular animals: thin thin cell sheets with flat or tubular shape Animal Size and Shape Complex multicellular Complex multicellular animals: animals: specialized internal exchange surfaces Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 34 Fig. 40-4: 40Internal Surfaces Bio 230, Summer 2010, Ch 40, Page 35 ...
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