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Lecture_7_Plant_structure_growth_

Lecture_7_Plant_structure_growth_ - Concepts/Terms Biology...

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1 Biology 230 Jennifer Breckler Plant structure and growth Chap 35 (pg 738-754) Campbell 8e Concepts/Terms Plant structure: organs, tissue systems, cells. Structure and function are linked. Plant growth is indeterminate, although some structures are determinate. Buds are growth areas. Plants live and die Meristems are embryonic tissues with dividing cells that result in plant growth in shoots and roots Primary and Secondary growth occurs Secondary growth of stems (i.e. stem thickening) is mainly due to secondary xylem. Vascular cambium adds new xylem internal to itself and phloem external to itself Cork cambium adds new epidermis (i.e. periderm) which splits as the stem thickens Plant structural differences have arisen during natural selection. Plant structures determine function. Plants are also beautiful. Plant structural organization can be described in 2 ways : cells----->tissues--->organs ---> organ systems cells----->tissues and tissue systems Q: What is a tissue? We will focus on angiosperm structure. Why? Angiosperms are flowering plants Angiosperms account for 90% of the world’s plant species Angiosperms are of particular importance to humans (i.e. agriculture) Angiosperms are a type of ‘vascular’ plant Angiosperms can be monocots (grasses, lilies) or eudicots Fig. 35-2 Reproductive shoot (flower) Apical bud Node Internode Apical bud Shoot system Vegetative shoot Leaf Blade Petiole Axillary bud Stem Taproot Lateral branch roots Root system General plant anatomy: 3 main organs (leaf, Stem, root) and 2 main organ systems (roots, shoots) 3 2 1 H 2 0, minerals sugar, carbs ‘flow’ * * *buds
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2 Fig. 35-3 root hairs greatly increase surface area for absorption. Temporary and non-anchoring. Form (structure) follows Function . ORGANS 1) Roots: Function to anchor, absorb and may store carbos tap root Fig. 35-4b Storage roots Can you Identify the roots? carrots, beans, turnips Why store Food in roots? Used in yr2 for flowering Fig. 35-4 Prop roots “Strangling” aerial roots Storage roots Buttress roots Pneumatophores Q: Which root structure has developed to store water or plant ‘food’? Fig. 35-5 Rhizomes Bulbs Storage leaves Stem Stolons Stolon Tubers 2) Stems : varying forms *note plants with storage Leaves vs. Storage stems Storage stems What is a stem? An organ with nodes and internodes leaf node node (where petiole emerges) petiole (a leaf part) <----internode (between leaves) vertical shoot Fig. 35-5a Rhizomes Rhizomes are stems.
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