4_Real_gases - Kinetics of Gases CHEM 300 Fall 2011...

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Fall 2011 Kinetics of Gases CHEM 300
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collisions s -1 Molecular collisions and mean free path Speed is not constant but changes with collisions How often do molecules collide with each other? Z 1 = 2 π d 2 s N V = 2 σ s N V Z 11 = 2 2 σ s N V 2 Total binary collision frequency
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Sample collisional cross-sections
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! = (average speed) x (average time between collisions) Inversely proportional to the density of a gas and pressure For perfect gas ! >> d Mean free path Mean free path ( ! ) Average distance a molecule travels between successive collisions
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Joule-Thompson effect As a gas is allowed to expand in an isolated system, the molecules move farther apart and kinetic energy is converted into potential energy. As kinetic energy drops so does speed. As speed decreases, so does temperature. This procedure can be used to condense a gas into a liquid. Linde Refrigerator
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Diffusion and Effusion Diffusion Process resulting from random motion of molecules by which there is a net flow of matter down a concentration gradient. Movement of smell to your nose. A bulk flow property Effusion The movement of gas through a small hole from a region of high pressure to low pressure.
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