3_Proton_transfer_equilibria

3_Proton_transfer_equilibria - Chemical equilibrium and...

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Chemical equilibrium and electrolytes
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In physical chemistry standard state: since the activity of all components is 1, the concentration of the hydrogen-ions is 1 (pH=0) In biochemical standard state, the hydrogen-ion concentration is 10 -7 M (pH =7). Because of the difference, r G o’ r G o if the hydrogen ions are involved in the reaction . For a reaction producing H + ions: A + B C + xH + Δ r G o = Δ r G o + 39.93 kJ / mol Equilibria in biological systems (The biological standard state)
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Acid-base theory • Brønsted-Lowry – An acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor – Protons in water do not exist as such, but are in the form of a hydronium ion (H 3 O + ). • Lewis theory – An acid is an electron acceptor and a base is an electron donor. – Useful for molecules without protons (metals for examples).
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For HA (A - conjugate base) For B (BH + conjugate acid) Proton transfer equilibria (application to solution of acids and basis)
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This note was uploaded on 11/28/2011 for the course CHEM 300 taught by Professor N.gerber during the Fall '11 term at S.F. State.

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3_Proton_transfer_equilibria - Chemical equilibrium and...

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