Kroner_121_final-2 - CHEMISTRY 121 – AUTUMN 2011...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMISTRY 121 – AUTUMN 2011 – KRONER Lectures: MWF 9:30 ­10:18 AM and 11:30 ­12:18 PM – 1000 MP Course Syllabus and Schedule of Assignments Instructor: Dr. Steven Kroner Office: 2060 McPherson Lab Office hours: Mon 1:30 ­2:30; Tues ­Thurs 2:30 ­3:30 Phone: 292 ­5311, Email: Laboratory Supervisor: Dr. Robert Tatz Office: 280 ­D Celeste Lab Phone: 292 ­8096 Email: rjtatz@chemistry.ohio ­ General Course Information Prerequisite: One unit of high school chemistry and eligibility to enroll in Math 150. Course Website: Textbook: Chemistry, The Central Science (11th ed.), Brown, LeMay, Bursten & Murphy (with Mastering Chemistry recommended) Lab Manual: General Chemistry Laboratory Experiments, Vol. 1 (2011 ­12), Casey & Tatz Lab Notebook: Student Lab Notebook, Hayden ­McNeil Publishing, Inc. Calculator Policy: For quizzes and exams, the use of calculators is restricted ONLY to a TI ­30 (any, except XS Multiview), Sharp EL ­509 (any), Sharp EL ­531 (any) or Casio FX ­250 (any). No other calculators permitted: http://undergrad ed.chemistry.ohio Course Grading Scheme: Your performance in the course will be evaluated on the basis of your total points earned throughout the quarter with respect to the course average and standard deviation of all students who complete the course. There is NO extra credit. Quizzes 150 points Laboratory 200 points ◄ A minimum of 50% laboratory score is required to pass course Midterm I 175 points Midterm II 175 points Final Exam 300 points Total 1000 points Chemistry 121 is a Physical Science course in the Natural Science category of the GEC, which has these goals and objectives: Natural Science coursework fosters students’ understanding of the principles, theories and methods of modern science, the relationship between science and technology, the implications of scientific discoveries and the potential of science and technology to address problems of the contemporary world. Learning Objectives: 1. Students understand the basic facts, principles, theories & methods of modern science. 2. Students learn key events in the history of science. 3. Students provide examples of interdependence of science & technology developments. 4. Students discuss social and philosophical implications of scientific discoveries and understand potential of science & technology to address contemporary world problems. Student Responsibility: Each student receives this information in the first lecture. It is your responsibility to read this material and be familiar with the course content, procedures, and grading. You are also responsible for any announcements concerning course procedures, which are made in class or on the course website. Requirements in the syllabus are subject to change, though only by Drs. Kroner & Tatz Disability Services: Students with documented disabilities in need accommodations should see the instructor privately. If your disability requires materials in alternate format, please contact the Office for Disability Services (ODS), 1760 Pomerene Hall 292 ­3307. IF YOU ARE UNABLE TO ATTEND THE FIRST LAB SESSION, Email us immediately at gc_office@chemistry.ohio to reserve your seat. STANDARDS OF ACADEMIC CONDUCT IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY Any material submitted in General Chemistry must represent your own work. Violations of this standard will be referred to the University Committee of Academic Misconduct (COAM) as required by Faculty Rules. If you need assistance, check with the staff of the Department of Chemistry. Group efforts by students, use of another student’s pre ­laboratory or laboratory material, or assistance from individuals who already have taken the course may place you in jeopardy of violation of the standards of General Chemistry. Possession of another student’s lab report(s) will raise immediate concerns about academic misconduct. Plagiarism or the submission of work based on old material is considered to be academic misconduct no matter how small the infraction. Identical answers indicate copying or unacceptable group efforts  ­ always answer questions in your own unique words. Individuals retaking the course must complete all work for the course during the current quarter and may not submit any parts of pre labs or lab work or reports performed in a previous quarter (see item #6 in “Ten Suggestions for Preserving Academic Integrity”, suggestions.html). Pre ­laboratory exercises are designed to make you prepare for the laboratory. Copying answers from other individuals or from old copies of the exercises does not prepare you properly for the laboratory. Evidence of copying or "working together" will be submitted to COAM. The minimum penalty recommended by the Department of Chemistry will be a zero for the pre ­laboratory exercise and the accompanying experiment. Laboratory work is the essence of the science of chemistry; therefore laboratory work in general chemistry is to be an individual effort. You will have your own locker/work space and you are expected to perform all parts of the experiments with your own equipment, chemicals and unknowns. The accumulation of data, calculations derived from that data and any conclusions or answers to questions associated with that experiment are to be your own work. Laboratory data may not be altered or "made up". All laboratory work must be done in your assigned laboratory room during your scheduled time period and be supervised by your assigned teaching assistant. You are required to have the data sheet/notebook signed by your teaching assistant during lab. Some courses require the submission of carbon copies of the lab notebook every lab period. Violations will be prosecuted with the minimum recommended penalty of a zero for the entire laboratory portion of the course. If a minimum grade in laboratory is required as stated on the syllabus of the course, the zero can result in an E for the entire course. Copying, use of "crib" material or use of stored constants and formulas in calculators on quizzes, midterm examinations or the final exam, no matter how small the violation, is regarded as a severe violation of academic standards. The Department of Chemistry will recommend, as the minimum penalty, a grade of E for the course for any such violations. The use of improper calculators (those NOT listed on the syllabus as approved) may constitute academic misconduct. The staff will inspect calculators used in exams. During exams, students are seated with their lab section to facilitate proctoring of the exam. Students supplying materials for others to "look at" may be charged with academic misconduct. Never allow another student access to your pre ­laboratory exercises or lab reports even after completion of the course. You should not assist others in violations of academic standards. "I didn't know that the person was going to copy my work" is not an acceptable excuse. 2 Lecture/Exam Schedule and Information Week of Lecture Topic Chapter Sept 22 Sept 27 Oct 4 Major Chemical Reactions, Significant Figures, Dimensional Analysis Empirical/Molecular Formulas, The Mole, Chemical Equations Naming Compounds, Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry Electrolytes & Non ­electrolytes, Solubility, Acid ­Base Reactions, Concentration Units, Solution Stoichiometry Oxidation Numbers, Redox Reactions, Properties of Light and Electrons, The Bohr Atom, Many Electron Atoms Electronic Configurations, Periodic Table, Periodic trends 1 2 ­3 2 ­3 Oct 11 Oct 18 Oct 25 4 4, 6 6 ­7 First Midterm Examination: Thursday, October 27, 6:30 – 7:48 PM Location: To be announced, Tentative coverage: Chapters: 1, 2, 3, and 4 Nov 1 Nov 8* Nov 15 Ionic & Covalent Bonding, Polarity & Electronegativity, Lewis Structures Exceptions to the Octet Rule, Molecular Shapes, VSEPR Model, Molecular Geometry Molecular Polarity, Molecular Orbital Theory 7 ­8 8 ­9 9 Second Midterm Exam: Thursday, November 17, 6:30 – 7:48 PM Location: To be announced, Tentative coverage: Chapters: part of 6, 7, 8, and part of 9 Nov 22* Nov 29 Hybrid Theory, Energy & Enthalpy, Thermochemical Equations Calorimetry, Hess’s Law, Enthalpy of Formation, Bond Energy 9 ­5 5, 8.8 Final Examination: Common final on Mon., Tues., or Wed. of finals week. Day, time, and location to be announced. Exam is cumulative and covers all of chapters 1 ­9 * November 11, 25, and 26 are University holidays. No classes/office hours will be held. EXAM INFORMATION: Examinations are a scheduled component of this course and attendance is required. Bring an approved calculator and your SIS/Carmen ID # to all exams. OSU ID cards will be collected at the final exam. Midterm exams will be returned, whereas the final exam will not be returned, though it will be kept on file for two quarters in the General Chemistry Office in 100 CE. Alternate exams are offered to students with University conflicts due to other class meetings, other midterm exams, or university ­sanctioned events held during the scheduled exams. If you have such a conflict, email or bring Dr. Kroner copies of the proof of the conflict AND your OSU schedule in lecture or office hours at least 10 days prior to the first midterm. You will be assigned a new time/location to take the exam that is not in conflict with your schedule. Make up exams are offered to students who miss an exam with a valid, documentable excuse, which can only be granted only by Dr. Kroner. If you miss an exam, alert Dr. Kroner as soon as possible and deliver all documents concerning the absence within one week, when possible. Make ­up midterms will be given only during the last week of regularly scheduled classes and make ­up finals will only be given during the following quarter. Make up exams may be written in a different format (such as show ­work format) from the other exams. EXAM SCORES VS. LETTER GRADES: Did you know that OSU does not set an official grading scale? After the midterms, Dr. Kroner will discuss how the chemistry department sets unique grading scales for each class and how to interpret your exam, lab, and recitation scores. Exam averages are typically in the range of 55 ­70%, which might be lower than you are accustomed to, though the grading scale will be set such that the average grade is in the C+ range. The reason exam scores are this low is a matter of our focus on testing your ability to apply the course material to solve problems, which is a greater challenge than simply testing only your course knowledge. See the Ohio State University Bylaws, Codes and Rules 3335 ­8 ­21 for more information on OSU’s official guidelines on assigning marks: ­rules/rules8/ru8 ­21.html 3 Recitation/Laboratory Schedule and Information Laboratory meetings:b Recitation meetings:a Day/Week: All days of the week Tues Wed Thurs Fri Sept 22 Ungraded activity, Acad. Misconduct quiz†) Exp 1c Exp 1c Exp 1c Sept 27 Oct 4 Oct 11 Oct 18 Oct 25 Nov 1 Ungraded activity Graded recitation 1: PS1 due, Quiz 1 Graded recitation 2: PS2 due, Quiz 2 Graded recitation 3: PS3 due, Quiz 3 Ungraded activity Graded recitation 4: PS4 due, Quiz 4 Exp 1c Exp 2 Exp 3 Exp 4 Exp 5 Exp 6 Exp 2 Exp 3 Exp 4 Exp 5 Exp 6 Exp 7 Exp 2 Exp 3 Exp 4 Exp 5 Exp 6 Exp 7 Exp 2 Exp 3 Exp 4 Exp 5 Exp 6 Exp 7 Nov 8a Graded recitation 5: PS5 due, Quiz 5 Exp 7 Exp 8 Exp 8 Nov 15 Ungraded activity Exp 8 Exp 9c Exp 9c Exp 9c Nov 22a Ungraded Activity Exp 9c Nov 29 Graded recitation 6: PS6 due, Quiz 6 Exp 10 Exp 10 Exp 10 Exp 10 a Recitation sessions meet once weekly, except on November 25 (holiday). b Lab sessions meet once weekly, except on November 11, 24, 25, and 26 (due to holidays) c Check ­in is done during the first meeting of lab and checkout is performed during the session assigned to experiment 9. Experiments 1 ­8 may NOT be performed during the week of November 29 and must therefore be completed by the week assigned to exp. 9. List of experiments: Laboratory Experiments Pre lab assignment* Report assignments Report** Pts*** 1. Measurements of Mass/Volume Page 3: 1aba Notebook exerciseb Short 80 2. Separation of a Mixture Page 13: 1, Onlinec Page 18: 1, 2, Onlinec Full 110 3. Determine an Empirical Formula Page 21: 1, 3, 6 No questions Short 80 4. Development of an Equation Pages 29 ­31: 1, 2, 4, 5, 8 Page 38: 1, 2, 4, 7 Full 110 c c 5. Determination of Sulfate Online Page 46: 1abc, 2, Online Full 110 c c 6. An Acid ­Base Titration: Page 67: 3, Online No questions, Online Short 80 7. Oxidation ­Reduction Reactions Page 60: 1adfh, 2cd, 3a, 4a Page 68: 2, 5a Full 110 8. Qualitative Reactions of Metal Ions Page 72: 1acd, 2b, 3b Page 78: 2, 3, 4, 5 Full 110 9. Emission Spectra Page 82: 1, 3, 4 Page 88: 1, 4 Full 80 10. Molecular Geometry/Bonding Page 99: 2, 4 Page 102: 1, 2 Short 100 a Prelab assignment for the first experiment is due by the end the first lab session. b Notebook Exercise: An exercise on how to keep a notebook is due with your report for exp. 1. See: http://undergrad ­ed.chemistry.ohio ­ c For experiments marked with online pre lab or online report assignments, go to: http://undergrad ­ed.chemistry.ohio ­ –then select prelab or report. * See page 6 to see what you should do before you go to lab to do an experiment. ** See page 6 to see the difference between full and short types of lab reports. *** Your score earned in the lab will be factored to be worth 200 out of the 1000 total course points. 4 RECITATIONS: The purpose of recitations is for you to assess your progress in the course. Attendance is required at six graded recitations this quarter. You must be on time for all graded recitation sessions and you will not receive extra time if you are late. Homework sets are due at all graded recitations. Only approved calculators may be used during quizzes and exams. Each graded recitation is worth 30 points: 12 points for homework and 18 points for a quiz. Your lowest total recitation score will be dropped. There are NO make ­ups given for missed recitations and NO extensions for online activities, for any reason. You are encouraged to take the optional online quiz if you miss recitation (see below). HOMEWORK: The purpose of homework is to help you develop your skills at applying the course material to problem solving. There will be two key types of homework assignments this quarter and you will have the option to do each one in either a written or an online format. 1. Post Lecture Homework Sets: A few textbook problems OR an online activity via Mastering Chemistry must be completed after all lectures and before the start of the next lecture, except after the first lecture. Assignments will be announced at the end of class and/or on the course website. Solutions to these problems should be written into a wire ­bound notebook dedicated only for these assignments and you must bring this notebook to all graded recitations. Start each assignment on a new, labeled page. If you choose to do some online assignments, record entries in your notebook stating it was done online and, when applicable, show any work required for the assignments in your notebook. Your TA will check your notebooks and Mastering Chemistry for one random assignment per graded recitation. Successful work is worth up to 4 points toward each graded recitation score. Written assignments are effort ­based graded and Mastering Chemistry assignments are graded for correctness, though you will have multiple attempts to answer questions correctly. The goal of studying after each lecture is to show you the importance of staying caught up in the course and how to most efficiently learn to use the material. 2. Semi Weekly Homework Sets: Your choice of a written non ­textbook homework packet (see the course website) OR an online tutorial via Mastering Chemistry must be completed by the start of all graded recitations. Written assignments are graded on the basis of effort and online assignments are graded for correctness, though you will have multiple attempts to answer questions. This homework is worth up to 8 total points towards each graded recitation score. The purpose of these homework packets is to give you practice applying the material to solving problems. If you find these problems overly challenging, it is recommended you devote more effort to the post lecture homework assignments. Do as much homework as it takes YOU to learn how to apply the course material. Most chapters have over 100 end of chapter problems. Do more homework if YOU need to! RECITATION QUIZZES: The purpose of the recitation quizzes is to provide you with feedback so you can assess your progress in the course. A poor result indicates that you are behind in the course and that you need to catch yourself up. A poor score may also suggest your study habits could use improvement. See my study suggestions page 8. A good score means you have made strong progress at learning that week’s material and you are using good study habits. A great score indicates you have mastered the material of that week and your study skills are excellent. You should strive to build great study habits and to master all major concepts. All recitations quizzes are worth 18 points towards each graded recitations score. Quizzes will be in multiple ­choice format. OPTIONAL ONLINE QUIZZES: An optional online quiz will be available on the course website until Sundays at 11pm following every week a quiz is given in recitation. Your score on this quiz, should you choose to take it, will be averaged with your recitation quiz score. You have a maximum of FIVE attempts to take this quiz (with different questions each time) and your highest attempt counts. †Mandatory Academic Misconduct Quiz: A mandatory course quiz on academic misconduct, available on the course website, must be passed with a perfect score. You will not receive a passing grade in this course unless you receive a perfect score on this quiz! You have unlimited attempts to take the quiz and only your best attempt counts. 5 LABORATORY: Attendance is required in lab, which consists of one 3 ­hour session per week. You may only work in the lab during your scheduled lab time. Any time remaining in a lab period and the checkout period can be used to complete a previous experiment – discuss with your TA first. A minimum of 50% of the total lab points is necessary for a passing grade in the course. The last possible lab session that can be used to perform laboratory is the lab session you are assigned to perform experiment 9 (see the lab schedule above on page 4). Due to safety concerns, no experiment other than experiment 9 or 10 may be performed during your final lab session. *Before an experiment: Prepare for each experiment by reading the experiment, working the assigned pre ­lab problems, and preparing your notebook. Your solutions to pre ­lab questions from the lab manual should be written on a separate piece of paper, except for Experiment 2, which can be torn out of the lab manual. Pre ­lab and notebook assignments are to be submitted at the start of the lab session or else no credit will be given. Notebooks: Use your carbonless copy set notebook "Student Lab Notebook". All entries must be written in ink. Notebooks are graded weekly as an experiment is performed and should contain: Before lab: Page Headers: Name, date, experiment number and title on each page Purpose statement: 1 ­2 sentence statement of purpose of experiment Procedure: Outline procedure steps from manual in your own words. Provide enough details so experiment can be performed without manual. Data Tables: Prepare data tables similar to report form. During lab: Lab Work: You may only attend lab at your scheduled lab time/location. Data: Record data in lab notebook. Never record directly into manual. Observations: Write observations in lab notebook, not to the manual. What to do at the end of every lab session: Have your TA sign and initial your notebook. Submit the copy of your notebook pages to your TA after each lab period. If you have not finished the experiment, discuss with your TA how you can finish the experiment in the next lab session. **Lab reports: Lab reports are generally due at the start of lab due one week following your completion of the experiment, though regardless of your completion must be submitted by: Experiments 1 5 must be submitted by November 18 at 4:30 PM Experiments 6 10 must be submitted by December 2 at 4:30 PM Short Report: Completed report form from manual, any sample calculations requested on the report form, and any assigned report questions Full Report: Cover page with experiment # and title, student's name, date, TA name Purpose; Reference to the lab manual procedure (note any change to procedure) Report sheet torn out of lab manual (Photocopies are not acceptable.) Sample calculations (as requested on report form, always use your own data!!) Graphs (as requested on the report form) Answers to report questions (make sure to write down assigned questions in lab!) Results or conclusion – Discuss sources of errors in your experiment For further information on lab reports and notebooks, see the appendix of your lab manual and see: http://undergrad ­ed.chemistry.ohio ­ ***These assignments comprise your lab grade: Your TA should grade, post your score to Carmen, and return your report a week after submission. Notify Drs. Tatz or Kroner if your TA fails to promptly grade, return, and/or post your score. Your lab score will be factored by 200/970 to be worth 200 total course points or by 200/860 if you have lab on Fridays due to missing exp. 8. Late Lab Report Submission: Late lab reports (even if submitted on the same day) will be penalized 10% per day. Submit all late reports to 100 CE and notify your TA by email within one day after submission. NO credit will be given after 2 weeks or past the due dates above. Laboratory Checkout Policy: If you do not check ­out of lab, you will receive a zero for your last lab report. See the lab schedule for the checkout date this quarter. Medical Insurance Coverage: Due to the potentially dangerous nature of laboratory work, you are reminded to maintain medical insurance coverage through OSU health service or a private agency when enrolling in Chemistry laboratory courses. 6 LAB SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: Students are required to read, understand, and implement the safety precautions indicated in the lab manual and lab handouts. The precautions are summarized on a safety form, which must be signed by all students during their first laboratory period. 1. You must wear department ­authorized ANSI code goggles in the laboratory. Goggles will be issued during check ­in. After the first free pair, goggles may be borrowed, if available, from CE 231 or 331; otherwise, they must be purchased from CE 180. Not wearing goggles will result in the loss of 10% of the grade for the experiment. For subsequent violations, an additional loss of 10% of the grade will result. Continued violations may result in dismissal from the course. The wearing of contact lenses is NOT recommended. 2. Students must wear clothing to reduce potential injury from chemicals or broken glass. Students who wear sandals or shorts will be sent home – NO make up time is provided. 3. Familiarize the location of the fire blanket, fire extinguisher, and eye wash in the lab. 4. Promptly report all accidents, no matter how small, to your lab instructor. 5. Your work area should be cleaned before you leave lab. After putting your equipment away, wipe down your work area with a wet sponge or towel. This ensures that you and other students who use the space will not be harmed by chemicals left on the desktop. Also clean up spills in the balance room by brushing chemicals into a weighing dish. 6. No unauthorized experiments are allowed. No chemicals may be removed from the lab. Laboratory Video Instruction: Laboratory videos are shown at the start of the lab. Students must view the entire video prior to starting the experiment. Students who are late for lab will have to view the video on the computers in the Learning Resource Center  160 CE. You will need to print a form using the UniPrint/BuckID pay station in 160A CE, to be given to your TA in lab. You are encouraged to view the tapes at your own pace either before or after laboratory. See: http://app.chemistry.ohio ­ Not all experiments have videos. The list of videos for this course and run times are as follows: Expt. # Title of Videotape for Chemistry 121 Time Checkin Safety in the Laboratory 06:08 1st  ­ Use of the Balance includes Use of the Pipette and Buret 1 10:41 (from "Volumetric Analysis") 3 Determination of the Formula of a Compound 09:50 4 Stoichiometry and the Chemical Equation 14:06 6 Volumetric Analysis 11:26 8 Reactions of Metal Ions 12:36 9 Use of the Spectroscope 05:01 Additional Assistance: 1. 2. 3. 4. See Dr. Kroner with any issues, problems, or concerns with this course. See Dr. Tatz, your TA, and/or Dr. Kroner for any issues or concerns related to the laboratory. Extra copies of course handouts are available on the course website. See the undergraduate chemistry web site for useful links and more information about chemistry: 5. You are encouraged to use the Learning Resource Center (LRC) in 160 Celeste Lab. The Center is the location all general chemistry teaching assistants hold their office hours and is open Monday through Friday for over 40 hours a week. TAs are available for assistance to all students in general chemistry with questions about the course, including lecture and laboratory material. A schedule is posted outside the door, which lists the time each TA is available and their course assignment. Stop by whenever convenient to your schedule and take advantage of the resources. You do not need to make an appointment and you may seek assistance from any TA. The Center provides computers on a first come, first served basis with instructional programs for the general chemistry classes. The Center has limited space and is not designed as a library or study hall, but as a place where students can seek for individualized instruction. 7 Building Strong Study Habits: Tips for Success In high school, you probably had to learn how to become a better (high school) student. Much the same in college, you probably need to learn how to become a better (college) student! Good analytical reasoning skills and good study habits are essential if you want to do well in university courses, especially in science courses. There are significant differences to high school; university courses are shorter in duration, they cover larger amounts of material, and you are in much greater control of your own success or failure. Determine the type of student you want to be this quarter. It’s up to you! A students: Never skip lecture, read the textbook sections covered in class before the next lecture, rewrite their own set of lecture notes, work homework problems every 1 or 2 days, only refer to the solutions manual when stumped by a problem (i.e. first try reading the book, lecture notes, or attempting simpler problems, etc.), complete extra unassigned problems as needed to master the course material, treat practice exams as a chance to assess their strengths and to figure out their weaknesses, focus their last studying before an exam on improving upon their weaknesses. B students: Either go to lecture or read the book but rarely do both, rarely review their lecture notes or consider writing their own set of notes, work homework problems only once or twice a week, often refer to the solutions manual for challenging problems, rarely work extra problems and achieve only a modest ability to solve problems, only focus on correcting their mistakes on practice exam problems but do not address major deficiencies with the course material, focus their last studying before an exam on practice exams. C students: Attend lecture when convenient, rarely read the textbook or lecture notes, spend a majority of their study time confused over the homework problems, frequently memorize details from the solutions manual, never complete any extra homework problems, spend a tremendous amount of time trying to memorize how to do problems on practice exams. D/E students: Rarely attend lecture, rarely read the book, spend very little time attempting homework, spend a majority of your study attempting to learn how to do the problems on the practice exams (and then you are subsequently not able to do them, need to ask others for assistance to learn how to do them, and then you try their best to memorize their solutions). Bottom line: It’s a myth that you must spend more time studying to be an A student. This is because A students learn to be efficient with their time. A students stay caught up in a class by going to class, reading the book, and working problems. An A student can breeze through homework problems and easily spot trouble areas where extra attention is needed. C students often spend much of their time confused by their homework, often as a result of not spending enough time learning the simpler course concepts through going to class and reading their books. D students only true studying is in the form of “cramming” before exams by trying to study for an entire weekend! Keep in mind: Chemistry is a problem ­solving course and the only way you get good at solving problems is to teach yourself strategies for solving difficult problems! You will be surprised how easy some problems can appear when someone else solves them, yet how difficult some problems are without any help. Nobody will be able to help you during quizzes/exams, so don't become overly reliant on others (i.e. TAs, tutors, classmates, solutions manuals, etc.) to teach you how to solve problems for you. Learn how to teach yourself how to solve your own problems! Final words: There must be a reason why you are in this course. Most likely, you are here because analytical reasoning skills are important to your major/future career. Analytical reasoning skills are important to scientists, who must analyze their results to determine the most valid conclusions, doctors, who must analyze patients to determine their ailments, and engineers, who must analyze designs to make sure they meet specifications. Introductory science courses offer a great chance build these skills. Expect this class to push you to improve your analytical skills! Don’t give up! “It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer.” Albert Einstein 8 ...
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