Test 4 Review Sheet.97

Test 4 Review - Test 4 Review Sheet Chapter 16 Cell Communication Make sure you are able to write out all the steps of the various pathways that

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Unformatted text preview: Test 4 Review Sheet Chapter 16: Cell Communication Make sure you are able to write out all the steps of the various pathways that are discussed Cell Signaling and Signal Transduction o Cells communicate to relay information to coordinate cell behavior o Signaling cell will produce a signal molecule that is detected by the target cell o Cells can act as both a signaling cell and a target cell o Signal transduction- target cell receives extracellular signal molecule and converts it to an intracellular signal that alters cell behavior o Four kinds of cell signaling Endocrine (hormones) Paracrine/autocrine ( local mediator) Neuronal (neurotransmitters) Contact-dependent (membrane bound molecule) o Contact-dependent signaling 16-4 Delta Notch Signaling the membrane bound inhibitory signal is called Delta the membrane bound receptor is called Notch the cell with delta will signal to the other surrounding cells to stay epithelial cells and not develop to a nerve cell when the delta signal binds to the notch receptor the tail of notch, NICD (notch intracellular domain) is cleaved and moves to the nucleus where it effects transcription o signal molecules free in the extracellular fluid embedded in the extracellular matrix bound to the surface of neighboring cells o cells must possess a receptor protein or receptor to signal o The same signal can induce different responses depending on the receptor and the downstream targets Acetylcholine signaling 16-5 Heart muscle decreases contraction rate (via GPCR) Salivary glands secrete Skeletal muscle contracts (via ion channel coupled receptor) Result depend on how cell receives and interprets the message o Signal transduction: - intracellular signaling molecules inside a cell that convey the message in a sequential manner and influence cell behavior o There are various kinds of signal molecules o Cells can be told to do various things depending on the combination of signals Survive Grow and divide Differentiate Die o Signaling that affects protein function works faster (sec-min) than signaling that effects protein synthesis (min-hr). Both alter cell behavior. o Two classes of extracellular signal molecules (hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules can trigger Cell surface receptors Intracellular receptors Ex Cortisol is able to diffuse through the membrane and activate a nuclear receptor protein which then moves to the nucleus and affects transcription (note it is a nuclear receptor even though it is initially found in the cytosol because it moves to the nucleus) o Blood vessel dilation is influenced by cell signaling NO triggers muscle relaxation 16-11 Acetylcholine released Diffuses and binds to receptors on endothelial cells Stimulates production and release of NO NO diffuses to neighboring smooth muscle cell Muscle reacts NO is responsible for local blood vessel dilation NO binds to guanylyl cyclase which then converts GTP to cGMP...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course BIO 218 taught by Professor Rothschild during the Spring '11 term at VCU.

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Test 4 Review - Test 4 Review Sheet Chapter 16 Cell Communication Make sure you are able to write out all the steps of the various pathways that

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