Test 4 Review

Test 4 Review - 4 S ‐ CDK phosphorylates CDC ‐ 6(thus...

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Chapter 17 Actin Filaments Microtubules Intermediate Filaments Polarity Polarity No polarity 7 nm 25 nm 10 nm ATP to polymerize GTP to polymerize Strong, ropelike Dynamic instability Dynamic instability Very stable Myosin proteins Motor proteins No motor molecules Carry organelles/vesicles Carry vesicles/organelles Nuclear lamins (phosphorylated for mitosis) Contractile ring Alpha and beta monomers Desmosomes MUSCLE CONTRACTION Gamma tubulin and centrosomes Cell crawling (Rho proteins) Mitotic spindle Thin and flexible Hollow tubes Cilia/flagella (9+2) Chapter 18 1. p53 induces transcription of p21 to bind to G1/S/S CDK’s to halt G1 or p53 induces apoptosis. 2. CDC6 attaches to ORC to form pre replication complex 3. Concentration of S cyclins increase therefore S CDKs get activated. S CDK binds to pre replication complex. This causes DNA to begin to replicate.
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Unformatted text preview: 4. S ‐ CDK phosphorylates CDC ‐ 6 (thus degrading it) to prevent re ‐ replication. 5. M ‐ CDKs already present (but inactive). Activating protein phosphatase prevented from dephosphorylating inhibitory phosphates until replication is complete and done accurately. 6. Concentration of M ‐ cyclins go up, thus causing inactive M ‐ CDK complexes to form. 7. Activating (CAK) and inhibitory (Wee1) are opposing each other. The inhibitory phos. removed by a CDC25, turning M ‐ CDK on. 8. Active M ‐ CDK increases activates CDC25, through positive feedback, substantially increasing active M ‐ CDK so that the cell enters M phase. 9. Condensins (G2) work with cohesins (from S phase) to form condensed chromosomes. Steps 1 ‐ 3 = G1 phase Steps 3 ‐ 9 = S/G2 phase...
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