206Fall2011pp17 - POLS 206 Social Policy in the United States What is Social Policy l Government provision of money food housing medical care to

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Unformatted text preview: POLS 206 11/29/2011 Social Policy in the United States What is Social Policy l Government provision of money, food, housing, medical care to segments of society l “Welfare” l Controversial l Relatively recent emphasis Contending Philosophical Roots Adam Smith John Maynard Keynes 1723­1790 1883­1946 “Invisible Hand” Free markets guide progress Individuals should be allowed to pursue self­interest—all benefit United States 1979­2007 Government intervenes where markets fail. Unites States 2008­? Traditional Philosophy re Welfare (1700s­1920s) l Government should stay out of welfare l Individual responsibility l Leave “the Market” alone l Let charities deal with the needy Calvin Coolidge Herbert Hoover Last presidents with this philosophy 1929 Stock Market Crash/Great Depression l Failure of markets l 25%+ unemployment l Collapse of farming in Great Plains l Bank failures l Personal, corporate debt l Homeless families Government Response? “New Deal” 1933 l Massive “stimulus” spending l Bail out banks, businesses l Regulated prices l First real “welfare” ­­Works Progress Administration ­­Social Security W o One Survived… r kl Social Security 1935 s l Covered many programs at first P r o 1. $11.4 billion g 2. 3.8 million “jobs” r 1. $550 billion in benefits today 3. Adult education, training e Criticisms: Criticisms: s 1. Cost 1. Breeds laziness 2. Solvency 2. FDR power base s Great Society 1960s l Poverty in the 1950s­1960s growing l JFK, LBJ expanded government action l Largest and most controversial expansion of welfare in American history Troubled Regions Great Society Programs 1. War on Poverty 1964=Office of Economic Opportunity ­­ Jobs Corps ­­VISTA (domestic Peace Corps) ­­Food Stamps ­­ Head Start 2. Health Care expansion ­­Medicare 1965 (Opposed by AMA) ­­Medicaid 1966 (states + federal government) Great Society Backlash l l l l Presidents Nixon and Ford (1969­1976) ­­Abolish Office of Economic Opportunity President Ronald Reagan (1981­1988) ­­ Eliminate, cut funding 1981 budget President Bill Clinton (1993­2000) ­­Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act 1996: “work fare” President George Bush (2001­2008) ­­Expand workfare ­­Faith­based initiatives Arguments of Welfare Pros >Provides security from business cycles. >Reduces stress, anxiety. >Promotes social stability, harmony. Negative Argument: Welfare Interferes with Growth Positive Argument: Welfare Makes People “Happy” Figure 1: Life Satisfaction and Decommodification 3.5 Denmark Sweden Ireland UK Austria Finland Belgium Germany 2.9 Life Satisfaction 3.1 3.3 Netherlands France 2.7 Italy 23 27 31 Decommodification 35 Why Welfare Varies: Three Worlds of Welfare I. Socialist: Scandinavia ­­universal, all­inclusive “social rights” II. Continental: Germany, France, Italy ­­makes distinctions among groups for moral reasons (Catholicism). III. Liberal: U.K., Ireland, United States ­­minimal; safety net for poor only. The “Liberal” World: Australia, Canada, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States 1. Welfare as stigma. NOT a right. 2. Narrow, constrained entitlement. 3. Narrow benefits. (a). Eligibility: means­testing. (b). Duration: brief as possible, (c). Income replacement: small %. (d). Range of benefits: narrow. I n Clash of Philosophies d il Collectivist v Individual efforts can’t guarantee well­being. i d u Government intervention seen as necessary. a l i s t “ T Public Opinion is Paradoxical h el “There is too much welfare” (55%) r l “People should have private Social e Security accounts” (65%) i s t o o N e Types of Social Programs e dl General ­ ­­Effect whole population B a ­­More acceptable s ­­Categories e ­Social Security d ­Medicare Federal­State Partnerships l Most social programs administered by both. l Big programs: Medicaid, Food Stamps, Unemployment Insurance l Variation California AFDC $600 monthly Mississippi AFDC $119 monthly l “Welfare Magnets”: people move to generous states. Federal Actors & Cost l Department of Health and Human Services: Social Security ($550 billion), Medicare ($140 billion), public health care ($94 billion) EXCEEDS Defense budget. l Department of Agriculture: Farm subsidies, food stamps, school lunch programs. l Department of Housing and Urban Development: housing for needy, low­rent housing, housing projects. $44 billion. l Department of Education: student loans, grants, scholarships. $22.3 billion. l Department of Veterans Affairs: aid to disabled veterans, benefits to elderly, retired veterans. VA hospitals and “old soldiers homes.” $37.6 billion. Looming Issues for Evaluation l Rising Cost of social policies l Demographic crisis: 65,000,000 Baby Boomers ­­Social Security solvency ­­Health care solvency l Low­cost housing ­­Mortgage crisis ­­Shrinking low­cost housing units ­­Social cost (housing projects, blight) Higher Education Health Care Social Security ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course POLS 206 taught by Professor Someonethatwasjusttryingtogettheirdoctorate during the Fall '06 term at Texas A&M.

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