Unit 1 Notes - Biology 1001 Dr Steve 8/28 Chapter 1 An...

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Biology 1001 Dr. Steve T TH 9:00-10:30 8/28 Chapter 1: An Introduction to Life on Earth Biology- “The study of Life” Insects are the largest living group, over 750,000 species A species is a group that breeds with its kind Blue whale is the largest organism on earth, 90-100 feet long Characteristics of living things: 1) Structure is complex and organized a) Salt is a crystal very organized but is simple and therefore not living b) Ocean water is complex but unorganized and therefore not living c) Water Flea (any living thing) is organized and complex 2) They acquire materials and energy from their surrounding environment a) Plants utilize CO 2 and sunlight to make sugars b) Animals eat those plants to obtain sugars for energy 3) They work to maintain their internal conditions a) Organized systems disintegrate b) Preventing disintegration required energy c) Homeostasis means “staying the same” c.i) Sweating when hot; shivering when cold c.ii) Feeling thirsty when water is low d) Homeostasis requires energy d.i)Opposes natural trend to disintegrate d.ii) Obtained from external source e) Homeostasis requires physical repair e.i) Parts break down e.ii) New materials required for repair f) Food supplies materials and energy 4) Growth a) Extension of homeostasis a.i) Homeostasis means “Staying the same” a.ii) Growth = homeostasis plus extra b) Organism grows in size/mass c) Must acquire more than needed for homeostasis d) Genetically programmed d.i)Timing d.ii) Size d.iii) Shape 5) Living Organisms respond to stimuli a) Changes in Internal environment a.i) Temp a.ii) Water Level a.iii) Blood Sugar b) Changes in external environment b.i)Seek food and water b.ii) Avoid Bitterness b.iii) Plants grow toward light
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Biology 1001 Dr. Steve T TH 9:00-10:30 6) Reproduction a) Reproduce themselves in kind (heredity) b) Perpetuation of parents’ genetics b.i)Genetic info stored in DNA molecules b.ii) Variation (b.ii.1) Offspring similar to both parents (b.ii.2) Offspring different from either parent b.iii) Simple code with complex error correction system (AGCT) 7) Evolution a) Genetic composition of population changes (evolves) a.i) Differential survival (natural selection) a.ii) “Selects” advantageous adaptations b) The more time, the more change c) Eventually becomes much different d) Not based on a belief system…based on experimental results and observations 3 natural processes drive evolution 1) Genetic variation/competition among variants 2) Not all survive 3) Adaptive characteristics inherited How do Scientists categorize the diversity of life? 1) 3 domains of living organisms a) Bacteria b) Archaea c) Eukarya 2) Domain Eukarya a) 4 Kindoms a.i) Protista a.ii) Fungi a.iii) Plantae a.iv) Animalia **Rabbitoppsos is a model organism because all DNA traits are known** Eukaryotic Organisms contain: o Single or multi-celled o Nucleus and other Organelles o Larger (10x), more complex o Protists, plants, fungi, and animals Prokaryotic organisms o Single cells o No nucleus or organelles o Smaller, less complex o Bacteria, Archaea 8/30
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Biology 1001 Dr. Steve
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