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Unit 3 Notes - Biology 1001 Dr Steve T TH 9:00-10:30...

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Biology 1001 Dr. Steve T TH 9:00-10:30 Chapter 11- Continuity of Life: Cellular Reproduction What are the Functions of Cellular Reproduction? 1. Binary Fission 2. Mitosis a. Development; growth; maintenance; repair b. Asexual reproduction 3. Meiosis a. Sexual Reproduction- making gametes Binary Fission (Fig. 11-2) Replicates the DNA The middle of the expanded cell pinches and constricts , dividing the cell into two cells Fission is where they break apart completely Functions of Mitosis: Growth and Development Required in Eukaryotes Two gamete cells combine into one cell containing one copy of genes from both parents Which the replicates until there are around 10 billion cells A sexual Reproduction by Mitosis (Fig. 11-1) Mitosis, Meiosis, and the Sexual Cycle (Fig. 11-4) Female goes through Meiosis in Ovaries to make eggs Male goes through Meiosis in Testes to make sperm Meiosis halves the amount of chromosomes from each partner which in turn gives the offspring one from each parent After the fertilized egg Mitosis takes over and through it, growth, and differentiation to develop the child into an adult until death How is DNA in Eukaryotic Cells Organized into chromosomes? Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure Unreplicated single chromosome can exist as Uncondensed or Condensed forms Or Replicated duplicated chromosome can exist as Uncondensed two strands or condensed Centromere is where the two condensed chromosomes meet To move around cell it must be condensed To replicate it must be uncondensed Chromosome Condensation (Fig. 11-5) The chromosome is a double helix and when duplicated it becomes two double helices One of the double helices is known as a chromatid Human Chromosomes during Mitosis (Fig. 11-6) Centromere is the part of the Chromosome that holds the sister chromosomes together Human Karyotype (chromosome map), Male (Fig. 11-7)
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Biology 1001 Dr. Steve T TH 9:00-10:30 1. These are chromosomes from Mitosis 2. Stained to show regions 3. Numbered by length 4. Occur in pairs- Homologues What are the events of Eukaryotic Cell Cycle? (Fig. 11-3) 2 major phases o Interphase- growth occurs G1 and G2, but during growth 1 and 2, S occurs which stands for Synthesis and is where the DNA is duplicated o Mitosis What are the Phases of Mitosis? PMATC 1. Prophase- Preparation 2. Metaphase – meet in the Middle 3. Anaphase – Pulled apart 4. Telophase – The end 5. Cytokinesis – Cytoplasmic split Definitions: 1. Centrioles: Where the spindle microtubules originate 2. Spindle Microtubules: Coordinates the movement of chromosomes during replication and division 3. Kinetochore: Protein complex located at the centromere of a chromosome and serves as an attachment site for the spindle microtubules Centrioles are like the anchor, the spindle mircotubules are like the rope and the Kinetochore is the cleat on a boat Mitosis: Prophase - Metaphase (Fig. 11-8 a-d) Late Ineterphase – Duplicated chromosomes remain elongated; centrioles have also been duplicated
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