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Final Notes - Biology 1001 Dr Pollack T TH 6:00-7:30...

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Biology 1001 Dr. Pollack T TH 6:00-7:30 Chapter 13: Biotechnology What is Biotechnology? Use or modification of organisms, cells, and biological molecules for “practical” purposes- Modifying Life Used before to make yeast cells…to make beer, bread, cheese, etc. Goals of Biotechnology Better understand inheritance and gene expression Better understanding and treatment of diseases Generate social and economic benefits, including o Improved plants and animals for agriculture o Efficient production of valuable biomolecules How does DNA Recombination Occur in Nature? Recombinant DNA o Transfer of genetic material between organisms o Same or different species o Transgenic: organism that expresses DNA derived from another species DNA Recombination occurs naturally o Sexual Reproduction (Meiosis and crossing over) o Bacterial transformations o Viral transfer of DNA Plasmid: 1. Small circular piece of DNA located in cytoplasm of many bacteria 2. Does not carry genes required for normal bacterial growth and survival 3. May carry genes that assist in survival and growth in certain environments a. E.g. Antibiotics 4. Central (Crucial) to modern day biotechnology Recombination in Bacteria (Fig. 13-1) Viruses may Transfer Genes (Fig. 13-2) Viruses are very host specific… Virus attached to susceptible host cell Virus enters host cell Virus releases its genes into cytoplasm; viral genes can be incorporated into the host cell genome Viral genes encode synthesis of viral proteins and additional copies of viral genes. New viruses assemble; some may carry genes from the host cell Host cell bursts, releasing newly formed virus proteins, or viral genes Virus is called a Vector it’s a good way to get one DNA to another How does DNA recombination occur in Genetic Engineering Laboratories? Tools needed o “Scissors”- bacterial restriction enzymes o “Paste” - DNA ligase
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Biology 1001 Dr. Pollack T TH 6:00-7:30 o “Vector”- Bacterial plasmids, viruses, yeast cells, other cells Restriction Enzymes cut DNA at palindromes (a word phrase, verse, or sentence that reads the same backward or forward) DNA Technology 1. Identify gene(s) of interest 2. Isolate the gene of interest 3. Produce many copies of that gene 4. Use it How are several copies of a gene made? Using plasmids and bacteria Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- can isolate genes and make copies of them quickly How are genes isolated? Restriction enzymes are used to cut DNA and DNA ligase sticks it into vectors (plasmids) Polymerase chain reaction: One PCR Cycle (Fig. 13-3) o Original Double Helix DNA o At 90 degrees C Denaturing; separate DNA Strands o At 50 degrees C annealing; Primers and DNA polymerase bind o At 72 degrees C extension; begins and DNA is synthesized Multiple PCR Cycles o DNA fragment leads to 2 then 2 leads to 4 then 4 leads to 8 and so on Quiz What is the correct sequence of events in the polymerase chain reaction?
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