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Shortened Final Notes

Shortened Final Notes - Biology 1001 Review Dr Pollock...

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Biology 1001 Review Dr. Pollock Final Exam Biotechnology- Use or modification of organisms, cells, and biological molecules for “practical” purposes; Modifying Life Goals of Biotechnology Better understand inheritance and gene expression Better understanding and treatment of diseases Generate social and economic benefits, including DNA Recombination occurs naturally Sexual Reproduction (Meiosis and crossing over) Bacterial transformations Viral transfer of DNA Restriction Enzymes cut DNA at palindromes Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- can isolate genes and make copies of them quickly What is the correct sequence of events in the polymerase chain reaction? Denature Anneal Extension Agrobacterium tumefaciens to insert the Bt (Bacteria) gene into plants (Fig. 13-7) Things needed include: plant, A. tumefaciens (vector), Ti plasmid, Bt gene Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium that contains a specialized plasmid called the Ti (tumor inducing) plasmid…creates a tumor in the plant for bacterium to live When the bacterium infects a plant cell, the Ti plasmid inserts its DNA into one of the plant’s chromosomes Bt is a gene that encodes for a protein that damages the digestive tract of insects So plants that have been engineered to produce Bt suffer far less damage from insects DNA Fingerprinting (pg. 248) RFLP= restriction fragment length polymorphism Cutting DNA and producing fragments of different lengths You can separate DNA based on size…Larger fragments move more slowly; smaller fragments move more rapidly. Possible Vectors for Human Genes Vector is a tool used to get the genes in the organism Retroviruses- Adenoviruses- Adeno-associated viruses- Cystic Fibrosis Caused by a defect in a protein that normally pumps chloride ions across cell membranes (30,000 USA) 1000 different alleles…32 alleles account for 90% of all cases Cold Viruses (carrying the normal allele) are being used to introduce the gene into the lungs The infected lung cells manufacture normal proteins, insert into their plasmamembranes and transport chloride into the fluid lining the lungs Kind of works…its temporary because the human immune system will kill off the virus and therefore cant inject it again
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Biology 1001 Review Dr. Pollock Final Exam
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Shortened Final Notes - Biology 1001 Review Dr Pollock...

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