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Unformatted text preview: 1 CMPSCI 383 Nov 1, 2011 Inference in Bayesian Networks 2 Today ʼ s topics: exact and approximate inference • Exact • Inference with joint probability distributions • Exact inference in Bayesian networks • Inference by enumeration • Complexity of exact inference • Approximate • Inference by stochastic simulation • Simple sampling • Rejection sampling • Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) 3 Inference terminology • Conditional probability table: data structure that lists probabilities of a variable given one or more other variables. • Joint distribution: distribution that is speciFed by a Bayesian network • Inference : produces the probability distribution of one or more variables given one or more other variables. 4 Example: Joint distribution V = Cavity; T = Toothache; C = Catch 5 Example: Home security 6 Compact conditional distributions • Even conditional probability tables can be quite large • Combining functions — that relate the value of the parents to the value of the child — is one way of reducing their size • Example (for discrete variables): NoisyOR “inhibition probabilities” 7 Additional complexities: Mixedmode nets • We discussed how to handle discrete variables, but BNs can be used to represent and reason about a variety of variable types 8 Compact conditional distributions • For continuous variables, we can assume some linear functional dependence among the variables. • For example, if Cost depends on Harvest and subsidy, for each value of subsidy... 9 Compact conditional distributions 10 Conditional Independence Node X is conditionally independent of its non descendants given its parents. 11 Conditional Independence Node X is conditionally independent of all other nodes in the network given its “Markov blanket” (its parents, children, and their parents). 12 Alarm JohnCalls MaryCalls Conditional independence (revisited) • Are JohnCalls and MaryCalls independent? • No, they are not completely independent • Whether they are independent is conditional on the value of Alarm • If the value of Alarm is known, are JohnCalls and MaryCalls independent?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course COMPSCI 383 taught by Professor Andrewbarto during the Fall '11 term at UMass (Amherst).
 Fall '11
 AndrewBarto
 Artificial Intelligence

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