John Neihardt, who is responsible for Black Elk's narrative in the form of Black Elk Speaks, can be seen in both positive and negative ways. His conversation with Black Elk, his transcription and editing of their talk, preserved Black Elk's story, which has enlightened generations of readers. It seems clear that Black Elk Speaks inspired other people, outside the Sioux tribe. Joseph Epes Brown, author of The Sacred Pipe (1953), for example, recorded and edited Black Elk's explanation of Sioux spiritual traditions. But Neihardt gained Black Elk's confidence in a rare way. There seems to have been a meeting of the minds between the two men that did not exist between Black Elk and anyone else. In the course of the narrative, readers learn that Black Elk has not told even his closest friends some of what he will tell Neihardt. So,
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