insect-structure-03 - these muscles slightly flatten the...

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Insect structure and function 3 Flight The wings are jointed to the second and third thoracic segments and are moved up and down by the action of muscles. As in the case of limbs, the muscles are attached to the inside of the exoskeleton. There are two types of attachment for either direct or indirect flight muscles Direct flight muscles One end of each muscle is attached to the inside of the thoracic segment; the other end is attached to the wing near the joint. The muscles act directly on the wing Section through the thorax to show direct muscle attachment when this muscle contracts it pulls the wing down when this muscle contracts it pulls the wing up joint Attachment of indirect flight muscles
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Unformatted text preview: these muscles slightly flatten the thorax and flip the wing up these muscles deepen the thorax and flip the wing down Indirect flight muscles These act on the thorax and distort it, so flipping the wings up and down. This produces a rapid wing beat. There are also muscles which adjust the angle of the wings The wings generate ‘lift’. On the downbeat they are held more or less horizontally for maximum effect on the air. On the upbeat they rotate to a vertical angle which offers little air resistance. The downbeat therefore generates ‘lift’. 1 and 2 = downbeat 4 and 5 = upbeat © D.G. Mackean After Magnan...
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