chemicals-of-life

chemicals-of-life - The Chemicals of Living Cells The...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–8. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Chemicals of Living Cells ©The Wellcome Trust
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
The chemicals of life All living organisms are made up of chemical substances Reactions between these substances keep the cytoplasm (and the organism) alive. They are living processes . The chemical substances described in the next series of slides are carbohydrates , proteins and lipids, but there are hundreds of others. 2
Background image of page 2
Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain the elements carbon , hydrogen and oxygen Familiar carbohydrates are sugar and starch Glucose, fructose, maltose and sucrose are sugars Glucose and fructose have the same formula, C 6 H 12 O 6 Sucrose and maltose have the same formula, C 12 H 22 O 11 Carbohydrates provide the main source of energy for respiration in living organisms 3
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 C C C C C C HO HO H HO H H OH H OH H 2 OH A glucose molecule as a straight chain 5 of the carbon atoms may be arranged in a ring This molecule is often represented simply as a hexagon C O C C C C C 4
Background image of page 4
Other carbohydrates 2 molecules of glucose can join together to form a molecule of maltose maltose sucrose is formed when a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose combine Starch and cellulose are formed from hundreds of glucose molecules joined to form a long chain part of a starch molecule 5
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Proteins Proteins are made up of carbon , hydrogen and oxygen molecules but with the addition of nitrogen Carbohydrates are made up of glucose units. Proteins are made up of units called amino acids There are about 20 different amino acids. Examples are glycine (Gly), alanine (Ala), valine (Val) and cysteine (Cyst) The amino acids, Gly-Val-Val-Cyst-Ala-Gly-Ala-Val joined together would make a small protein Proteins make up the structure of cells; cytoplasm, nucleus cell membranes and enzymes 6
Background image of page 6
Protein structure and shape The way the amino acids join up, gives a protein molecule a particular shape, which is different for every protein Ser-Cyst-Val-Gly-Ser-Cyst Ala Val Val-Cyst-Ser-Ala-Ser-Cyst-Gly
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 44

chemicals-of-life - The Chemicals of Living Cells The...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 8. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online