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Ch05_National_Exam_Helper

Ch05_National_Exam_Helper - Chapter 5 National Exam Helper...

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Chapter 5 National Exam Helper 1. The _______ molecules of membranes act as barriers to the passage of many materials and serve to maintain the membrane’s physical integrity. Answer: lipid 2. In a complex solution, the _______ of each substance is independent of that of the other substances. Answer: diffusion 3. Lipids and proteins can move _______ but not across biological membranes. Answer: laterally 4. _______ involves coated pits, clathrin, and coated vesicles. Answer: Receptor-mediated endocytosis 5. The ability of some materials to move through biological membranes more readily than others is called selective _______. Answer: permeability 6. The major lipids in biological membranes are called _______. Answer: phospholipids 7. If a cell placed within a solution shrinks, the solution is _______ relative to the cell. Answer: hypertonic 8. The cells of the intestinal epithelium are joined to one another by _______ that prevent substances from passing between the cells of this tissue. Answer: tight junctions 9. The coupled transport system by which glucose and sodium ions enter intestinal epithelial cells is called _______. Answer: symport 10. Mammalian embryos have protein complexes that couple cells, allowing communication between cells by small molecules. These complexes of proteins are called _______. Answer: gap junctions 11. Diffusion occurs _______ a concentration gradient. Answer: down 12. Three factors that influence the diffusion rate of a molecule are _______ , _______, and _______ . Answer: the size of the molecule; the temperature; the concentration gradient
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13. The force that increases inside a plant cell when it is placed in water is called _______ pressure. Answer: turgor 14. The sodium–potassium pump of cell membranes is a(n) _______ active transport system. Answer: antiport 15. Biological membranes are organized in the manner described by the _______ model. Answer: fluid mosaic 16. Membrane proteins with attached carbohydrates are called _______. Answer: glycoproteins 17. Membrane lipids with attached carbohydrates are called _______. Answer: glycolipids 18. The amount of protein in the cell membranes of the myelin sheath is (more/less) _______ than the amount of protein in the membranes of the mitochondria. Answer: more 19. The cell adhesion molecule of sponges is a _______. Answer: glycoprotein 20. When cell adhesion molecules are of the same type, they are called _______. Answer: homotypic 21. The type of cell adhesion molecule found in sponges is _______. Answer: homotypic 22. In a comparison of carrier and channel proteins, _______ proteins were found to be faster, and they do not saturate. Answer: channel 23. Membrane synthesized on the ER moves to other points of the cell as _______. Answer: vesicles
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