Chapter_4_National_Exam_helper - Chapter 4 National Exam...

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Chapter 4 National Exam helper. 1. _______ are a model of how cells may have originated. Answer: Protobionts 2. In biology, we call the basic unit of life the _______. Answer: cell 3. Photosynthetic membrane systems and mesosomes are internal membrane components of certain organisms termed _______. Answer: prokaryotes 4. The light microscope has glass lenses that focus light (photons) for imaging, whereas the electron microscope has _______ that focus electrons for imaging. Answer: magnets 5. Membranous compartments with distinctive shapes and functions are termed _______. Answer: organelles 6. _______ is the process whereby light energy is converted into chemical bonds. Answer: Photosynthesis 7. The _______ is the organelle with many folds called cristae. Answer: Mitochondrion 8. The _______ is an organelle that serves as a sort of “postal depot” where some of the proteins synthesized on ribosomes and rough ER are processed. Answer: Golgi apparatus 9. RNA carries information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. To get from the nucleoplasm to the cytoplasm, RNA must pass through _______. Answer: nuclear pores 10. All organisms are composed of cells; all cells come from preexisting cells. These statements are called _______. Answer: the cell theory 11. When you cut an orange in half, you _______ the surface area-to-volume ratio. Answer: increase 12. The DNA in a prokaryotic cell can be found in the _______ region. Answer: nucleoid
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13. The _______ of some bacteria help them avoid being detected by the human immune system. Answer: capsules 14. The meshwork of intermediate filaments found on the interior surface of the nuclear membrane is called the _______. Answer: nuclear lamina 15. Steroids, fatty acids, phospholipids, and carbohydrates are synthesized in the _______. Answer: smooth ER 16. The side of the Golgi facing the ER is the _______ face. Answer: cis 17. The substances that enter the Golgi come from the _______. Answer: ER 18. Toxic peroxides that are formed unavoidably as side products of important cellular reactions are found and neutralized in _______. Answer: peroxisomes 19. The _______ is the cytoskeletal component with the smallest diameter. Answer: actin (or microfilament) 20. Keratin is classified as an _______ type of filament. Answer: intermediate Multiple Choice 1. The surface area-to-volume ratio of an object can be decreased by a. cutting it into smaller pieces. b. flattening it. c. stretching it. d. making it spherical. e. All of the above Answer: d 2. What must cells do in order to survive? a. Obtain and process energy b. Convert genetic information into proteins c. Keep certain biochemical reactions separate from one another d. Both a and b e. a, b, and c Answer: e
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