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CH_14 - CH 14 1 DNA in eukaryotes is wrapped around special...

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CH 14 1. DNA in eukaryotes is wrapped around special proteins to form structures that look like beads on a string. These structures are called _______. Answer: nucleosomes 2. Segments of a gene that are transcribed but do not encode part of the protein product are called _______. Answer: introns 3. DNA sequences called _______ can replicate and insert themselves into different parts of the genome. Answer: transposable elements 4. Members of a gene family that do not make a functional gene product are called _______. Answer: pseudogenes 5. The RNA of snRNPs are complementary to _______ sequences located at the intron– exon boundaries. Answer: consensus 6. When you stain a preparation of epithelial cells from a female rat, you observe one highly condensed chromosome in interphase nuclei. This is the inactive X chromosome, or _______. Answer: Barr body 7. During the development of amphibian oocytes, the number of genes encoding the rRNA increases. This increase is called _______. Answer: gene amplification 8. Those DNA sequences that are not represented in the mRNA are referred to as intervening sequences, or _______. Answer: introns 9. Most _______ are probably duplicate genes that changed so much during evolution that they no longer function. Answer: pseudogenes 10. During RNA splicing, different snRNPs constitute a “splicing machine” called a _______. Answer: spliceosome 11. There are at least three ways in which _______ may be controlled: (1) Genes may be inactivated; (2) specific genes may be amplified; and (3) specific genes may be selectively transcribed.
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Answer: transcription 12. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the _______ is a stretch of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription. Answer: promoter 13. The gene that codes for an RNAi that binds to Xist RNA at the active X chromosome is _______. Answer: Tsix 14. The process of discerning protein product and function of a known gene sequence is called _______. Answer: annotation 15. A DNA sequence that signals the end of transcription in eukaryotes is called the _______. Answer: terminator Multiple Choice 1. Among eukaryotes, there is _______ relationship between complexity and genome size. a. an inverse b. a direct c. not always an inverse d. not always a direct e. no Answer: d 2. In eukaryotic cells, transcription and translation
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