defenses against disease

defenses against disease - 18 Natural Defenses against...

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18 Natural Defenses against Disease TEST FILE QUESTIONS Fill in the Blank 1. The final large lymph duct connects to a major _______ near the _______. Answer: vein; heart 2. The _______ immune response is a specific defense system against pathogens that is carried out by anti bodies in the blood. Answer: humoral 3. The blood fluid that carries leukocytes but not red blood cells is _______. Answer: lymph 4. _______ are specific molecules on the surface of T cells that react to antigenic determinants. Answer: T cell receptors 5. The fusion of B cells and tumor cells in culture produces _______, which make monoclonal antibodies. Answer: hybridomas 6. _______ are soluble signal proteins released by T cells. Answer: Cytokines 7. When the immune recognition of self fails, a(n) _______ disease results. Answer: autoimmune 8. HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS, uses the enzyme _______ to make a DNA copy of the viral genome. Answer: reverse transcriptase 9. The _______ regions of the heavy chains of the antibody molecule determine whether the antibody remains part of the plasma membrane of the cell or is secreted into the bloodstream. Answer: constant 10. Of the phagocytes neutrophils and macrophages, _______ live longer. Answer: macrophages 11. The concept that antigenic determinants stimulate clones of B cells that were already making specific antibodies against those antigens is called the _______ theory.
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Answer: clonal selection 12. The ability of the human body to remember a specific antigen explains why _______ has eliminated diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, and polio. Answer: immunization 13. Highly specified protein molecules called _______ carry out the humoral immune response against invaders in the fluids. Answer: immunoglobulins 14. T cells are educated, and those that have receptors for “self” are eliminated in the _______. Answer: thymus 15. Two broad groups of cells are the important cells of the immune system: the _______, which sometime differentiate to produce antibodies, and the _______, some of which are involved with elimination of virus-infected cells. Answer: B cells; T cells 16. Tears, nasal drips, and saliva possess an enzyme called _______ that degrades the cell walls of many bacteria. Answer: lysozyme 17. Types of defenses that provide general protection against a wide variety of pathogens are classified as _______ defenses. Answer: nonspecific 18. A cell signaling pathway stimulates defense processes, such as the production of complement proteins, cytokines, and interferons. The receptor in this pathway is _______. Answer: toll Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is not one of the first lines of defense against invading pathogens? a. Skin
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defenses against disease - 18 Natural Defenses against...

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