gap junctions - CH 15 1. Nitric oxide and _ are needed to...

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CH 15 1. Nitric oxide and _______ are needed to relax the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. Answer: acetylcholine 2. _______ could be eliminated as a needed signal to relax smooth muscle cells if a membrane-permeable cGMP existed. Answer: Nitric oxide (NO) 3. Cells of many multicellular animals communicate directly by means of _______, which allow them to link their cytoplasms. Answer: gap junctions 4. Signals that act on the same cells as those that generated them are called _______. Answer: autocrine 5. Signals that diffuse from one cell to other types of cells are called _______. Answer: paracrine 6. The molecule that binds to the receptor is called a_______. Answer: ligand 7. Phosphatidyl inositol-bisphosphate is a _______. Answer: lipid 8. In the signal pathway that includes phospholipase C, _______ opens calcium channels. Answer: inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ) 9. The signaling process from signal detection to final response is called the _______. Answer: signal transduction pathway 10. Conformation and activity of a targeted protein can be altered by _______. Answer: phosphorylation Multiple Choice 1. Why might a certain signaling molecule affect one type of cell in an organism and not another? a. Each different type is capable of interpreting just one kind of signal to prevent confusion. b. Each different type is capable of interpreting signals necessary for its functions. c. All cells can interpret the different signaling molecules in different ways. d. Not all the cells are exposed to all the different signals.
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e. Cells do not interpret the signals; the signals must interpret the cells. Answer: b 2. Cells receive which of the following signals? a. Light b. Sound c. Odorants d. Hormones e. All of the above Answer: e 3. Signals get to target cells in multicellular organisms via a. circulation and diffusion. b. conduction and diffusion. c. circulation and lymph. d. chaperon trafficking and transmembrane transport. e. cytoskeletal trafficking and perfusion. Answer: a 4. A signal pathway is a. the path a signal takes to find its target cell. b. a group of signals along a concentration gradient. c. the coordinates created from concentration gradients that tell cells where they are located in multicellular organisms. d. the series of events that occur in response to a signal’s being detected. e. a nerve propagation. Answer: d 5. The EnvZ protein of E. coli changes shape in response to a. ion concentration. b. ligand binding. c. light. d. sound. e. O 2 . Answer: a 6. The EnvZ protein undergoes a conformational change to become an active a. channel protein. b. kinase. c. phosphorylase. d. environmental gene. e. All of the above Answer: b 7. The OmpR protein is a(n) a. DNA binding protein.
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b. channel protein. c. channel-blocking protein.
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gap junctions - CH 15 1. Nitric oxide and _ are needed to...

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