Nutrition - 50 Nutrition Digestion and Absorption TEST FILE...

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50 Nutrition, Digestion, and Absorption TEST FILE QUESTIONS Fill in the Blank 1. The crowns of the teeth of mammals are covered with a hard material called _______. Answer: enamel 2. _______ enzymes break down macromolecules into their monomeric units by adding water. Answer: Hydrolytic 3. Many digestive enzymes are produced in an inactive _______ form. Answer: zymogen 4. A wave of smooth muscle contraction called _______ pushes food along the digestive tract. Answer: peristalsis 5. In addition to serving as an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes the digestive enzyme precursor _______. Answer: trypsinogen 6. Many species of _______ live in the human large intestine. Answer: bacteria 7. The initial digestion of protein in the vertebrate digestive tract begins in the _______. Answer: stomach 8. The _______ is the organ that manages most of the balance between circulating and storing nutrients. Answer: liver 9. The liver converts pyruvate and other molecules to glucose by the process of _______. Answer: gluconeogenesis 10. The regulation of blood glucose is accomplished mainly by hormones produced by the _______. Answer: pancreas 11. Most plants, some bacteria, and some protists are autotrophs. Animals, however, are _______ because they derive both their energy and their structural molecules from food.
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Answer: heterotrophs 12. Most animals process their food through _______ digestion in a digestive cavity called a gut. Answer: extracellular 13. If 1 kcal = 4.184 joules, then the number of kcal found in a diet consisting of 13,398 joules is _______ kcal. Answer: 3,200 14. We can synthesize almost all the lipids required by the body from acetyl units obtained from carbohydrates or fats, but we must have a dietary source of essential _______, notably linoleic acid. Answer: fatty acids 15. _______ prevents fat droplets from aggregating, or clumping together, so that the maximum surface area is exposed to lipase action. Answer: Bile 16. Crabs and earthworms that feed actively on dead organic matter are called _______. Answer: detritivores 17. An unusual feature of the vertebrate digestive tract is that it has its own intrinsic _______. Answer: nervous system 18. _______ are organisms like protists and fungi that absorb nutrients from dead organic matter. Answer: Saprobes 19. The three sections of the small intestine are the _______, _______, and _______. Answer: duodenum; jejunum; ileum 20. Food intake is regulated by the region of the brain known as the _______. Answer: hypothalamus Multiple Choice 1. In which order are stored fuels utilized during starvation? a. Fats, glycogen, proteins b. Glycogen, proteins, fats c. Proteins, fats, glycogen d. Fats, proteins, glycogen e. Glycogen, fats, proteins Answer: e
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2. Certain amino acids are called essential amino acids because they a. are required for making protein. b. cannot be made from other amino acids and must be obtained from food.
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course BIOLOGY BIO 187 taught by Professor Capco during the Spring '11 term at ASU.

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Nutrition - 50 Nutrition Digestion and Absorption TEST FILE...

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