cardio MCAT1 - 48 Gas Exchange in Animals TEST FILE...

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48 Gas Exchange in Animals TEST FILE QUESTIONS Fill in the Blank 1. External _______ are highly branched folds of the body surface involved in gas exchange. Answer: gills 2. The breathing tubes of insects are called _______. Answer: tracheae 3. The lungs of _______ are the most efficient lungs of vertebrates. Answer: birds 4. In fish gas exchange systems, blood flows through gill lamellae in a direction opposite to water flow, a phenomenon known as _______. Answer: countercurrent exchange 5. In the mammalian lung, the amount of air that is moved in normal breathing is called the _______. Answer: tidal volume 6. After extreme exhalation, the lungs and airways still contain a _______ of air. Answer: residual volume 7. The oxygen-binding molecule abundant in muscle is _______. Answer: myoglobin 8. Hemoglobin consists of _______ protein chains linked together. Answer: four 9. The notation P O2 stands for the _______ of oxygen. Answer: partial pressure 10. The shape of the oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin is said to be _______. Answer: sigmoid 11. An unusual feature of the lungs of _______ is that they expand and contract relatively little during a breathing cycle. They also contract during inhalation and expand during exhalation. Answer: birds
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sustained only where _______ gas is present. Answer: O 2 13. There are no active transport mechanisms for respiratory gases. Therefore, _______ is the only means by which respiratory gases are exchanged. Answer: diffusion 14. In Fick’s law of diffusion, the term ( P 1 P 2 )/ L is a _______. Answer: partial pressure gradient 15. The respiration of birds is unique. In addition to lungs, birds have _______ at several locations in their bodies. Answer: air sacs 16. Mammalian lungs have two adaptive features: the production of mucus, and _______, a substance that reduces the surface tension of the liquid that lines the insides of the alveoli. Answer: surfactant 17. Breathing mechanisms _______ the environmental side of the gas exchange surface, while circulatory systems _______ the internal side of the surface. Answer: ventilate; perfuse 18. _______ is a genetic disease in which respiratory problems result from dehydrated, thick mucus. Answer: Cystic fibrosis Multiple Choice 1. Breathing provides the body with oxygen required to support the energy metabolism of all cells. Breathing also eliminates _______, one of the waste products of cell metabolism. a. CO 2 b. CO c. carbon tetrachloride d. calcium carbonate e. carbonic acid Answer: a 2. Why can oxygen can be exchanged more easily in air than in water? a. The oxygen content of air is higher than that of water. b. Oxygen diffuses more slowly in water than in air.
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cardio MCAT1 - 48 Gas Exchange in Animals TEST FILE...

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