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HISTORY FINAL STUDY TERMSReconstruction Amendments-The reconstruction amendments refer to the 13th, 14th, and 15thamendments that werewritten after the civil war. The 13thamendment, in December of 1865, abolished slavery. Thesouthern states had to ratify this in order to join back in to the union. The 14thamendment wasestablished in 1868. It made African Americans citizens of the US. It also stated that states didnot have the power to take this away from them. Johnson vetod the bill but congress had thepower to override him. The 15thamendment, in 1870, gave African American males the right tovote. This made African Americans very active in society. However, literacy tests were put in tostop African Americans from voting. Also, the grandfather clause was established. This statedthat if your grandpa did not have the right to vote, then you could not vote as well. This created anever ending cycle. This was significant because it freed African Americans, gave themcitizenship, and gave them the right to vote.Election of 1876-In the election of 1876, Tilden from NY was chosen to run as the democratic nominee. He wasrunning against Hayes. Before what was known as the compromise of 1877, Tilden was ahead ofHayes by 19 electoral votes. However, there were 20 disputed votes.The democrats approachedhayes and said we will give you the election under a few circumstances. First off, he had toappoint some democrats to positions in the government. Also, Hayes had to appoint onedemocrat on to his Cabinet. And he had to withdrawl the 20 thousand troops that were in thesouth. This led to the end of reconstruction.Sherman Anti-Trust Act-The Sherman anti trust act in 1890 was aimed more at pools or cartels then it was meant to keepbusinesses from forming entities that would inhibit completion.The act let the federalgovernment to make laws against trusts in order to dissolve them.Due to not really knowingwhat a trust really was, the supreme court let this sit for about eight years. It is not until TeddyRoosevelt comes along that the act starts to be enforced. It was viewed as protection for theconsumer and is the foundation for laws that we have against monopolies today.Populism-Rises in the 1880s as a result of increased destitution in West.a.i.Rooted in republicanism and procedurism. The latter means that theproducer of a goods should benefit from them. This did not fit within theframework of industrialism. This was really a Jacksonian concept.a.ii.In the West, populism was a response to the closing of the frontier.Speculators had lured people to the trans-Mississippi West promisingfortunes. However, what happened was a major drought that destroyedcrops in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. In addition, prices fell,railroad rates rose, and onerous mortgages came due.