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HISTORY FINAL STUDY TERMSReconstruction Amendments- The reconstruction amendments refer to the 13th, 14th, and 15thamendments that were written after the civil war. The 13thamendment, in December of 1865, abolished slavery. The southern states had to ratify this in order to join back in to the union. The 14thamendment was established in 1868. It made African Americans citizens of the US. It also stated that states did not have the power to take this away from them. Johnson vetod the bill but congress had the power to override him. The 15thamendment, in 1870, gave African American males the right to vote. This made African Americans very active in society. However, literacy tests were put in to stop African Americans from voting. Also, the grandfather clause was established. This stated that if your grandpa did not have the right to vote, then you could not vote as well. This created a never ending cycle. This was significant because it freed African Americans, gave them citizenship, and gave them the right to vote. Election of 1876 - In the election of 1876, Tilden from NY was chosen to run as the democratic nominee. He was running against Hayes. Before what was known as the compromise of 1877, Tilden was ahead of Hayes by 19 electoral votes. However, there were 20 disputed votes. The democrats approached hayes and said we will give you the election under a few circumstances. First off, he had to appoint some democrats to positions in the government. Also, Hayes had to appoint one democrat on to his Cabinet. And he had to withdrawl the 20 thousand troops that were in the south. This led to the end of reconstruction. Sherman Anti-Trust Act- The Sherman anti trust act in 1890 was aimed more at pools or cartels then it was meant to keep businesses from forming entities that would inhibit completion. The act let the federal government to make laws against trusts in order to dissolve them. Due to not really knowing what a trust really was, the supreme court let this sit for about eight years. It is not until Teddy Roosevelt comes along that the act starts to be enforced. It was viewed as protection for the consumer and is the foundation for laws that we have against monopolies today. Populism- Rises in the 1880s as a result of increased destitution in West.a.i.Rooted in republicanism and procedurism. The latter means that the producer of a goods should benefit from them. This did not fit within the framework of industrialism. This was really a Jacksonian concept.a.ii.In the West, populism was a response to the closing of the frontier. Speculators had lured people to the trans-Mississippi West promising fortunes. However, what happened was a major drought that destroyed crops in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. In addition, prices fell, railroad rates rose, and onerous mortgages came due.