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HISTORY FINAL STUDY TERMSReconstruction Amendments-13thAmendment (Abolished Slavery – Dec. 1865)Southern states have to ratify in order to get back in uniona.14thAmendment•Make blacks citizens of the US•States cant take rights away from them•Johnson vetos 14thamendment and freedmens bureauCongress has power to override them15thamendment•African Americans can now vote, but still no one cares about theiropinion.•This makes African americans very active•Schools and churches were very important for darkeesb.Literacy Tests•If you cant read the constitution then you cant vote.Grandfather clause- if your grandfather couldn’t vote then you cant vote. It creates an endlesscycle.Election of 1876-Democrats choose a guy from New York which appeals to a lot of people.c.Results Prior to Compromisec.i.Tilden – 184 Electoralc.ii.Hayes – 165 Electoralc.iii.Disputed Votes: 20 – LA(8), SC(7), FL(4), and OR (1)d.Compromise of 1877d.i.ProvisionsDemocrats approach hayes and say you can have the election if you appoint some democrat topositions in your government.Also have to appoint one democrat to your cabinet.Have to remove the 20 thousand troops from south.This leads to end of reconstruction.e.Final Resultse.i.Hayes (Republican): 185/Electoral and 4.03Mil/Populare.ii.Tilden (Democrat): 184/Electoral and 4.28Mil/Populare.iii.Cooper (Greenback): 0/Electoral and 75K/PopularSherman Anti-Trust Act-In many ways this act was aimed more at pools or cartels as it wasmeant to keep businesses from forming entities that would inhibit completion.a.i.The Act authorized the federal government to institute proceedings againsttrusts in order to dissolve them.a.ii.The Supreme Court inhibited the act for many years due tomisunderstandings about what a trust actually was.•SATA sits dormant for about eight yearsa.iii.It’s not until Theodore Roosevelt comes to office that the act really startsto be enforced after his trust-busting exercises.a.iv.It was viewed as a protection for the consumer.Foundation for laws we have against monopolies today
Populism-Rises in the 1880s as a result of increased destitution in West.a.i.Rooted in republicanism and procedurism. The latter means that theproducer of a goods should benefit from them. This did not fit within theframework of industrialism. This was really a Jacksonian concept.a.ii.In the West, populism was a response to the closing of the frontier.Speculators had lured people to the trans-Mississippi West promisingfortunes. However, what happened was a major drought that destroyedcrops in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakotas. In addition, prices fell,railroad rates rose, and onerous mortgages came due.a.iii.In the South, populism rose out of suffering under the crop lien andsharecropping systems.