CEP EXAM 4 REVIEW
What are risk factors and protective factors that predispose youth to drug use?
Protective factors: self-control,
parental monitoring, anti-drug use policies, strong neighborhood attachment
Risk factors: aggressive behavior, lack of parental supervision, lure of gang membership, drug availability, and
What are the four primary factors that
surround an individual with regard to the possibility of drug use
Attitudes and beliefs
Interpersonal and peer resistance skills
What are the levels of drug prevention programs? What are some examples of each?
Level 1- Primary Prevention
(Risk reduction before abuse)
is aimed at non users and the goal is to inoculate potential
users against drug use. Primary prevention is often targeted at at-risk youth who may live in areas where licit and illicit
types of drugs are rampant, may come from problem families, or are surrounded by drug abusing peers.
affective education, values clarification, personal and social skills development
(assertiveness and refusal skills), drug and education
Small Group factors:
peer mentoring, conflict resolution, curriculum infusion, clarification of peer norms,
alternatives, strengthening families.
Strengthening school family links, school-community links, and community support systems,
media advocacy efforts reduce alcohol marketing.
Level 2: Secondary Drug Prevention
(Intervening in early abuse)
target at-risk groups, early experimenters and abuse
populations in order to stop the progression to drug of abuse. Similar to
Aim is towards newer drug
users with a limited history of use.
Assessment strategies: identification of abuse subgroups and individual subgroups and individual diagnose,
early intervention coupled with sanctions, teacher-counselor-parent team approach, developing healthy
alternative youth culture, recovering role models.
Level 3: Tertiary Prevention
(Intervening in advanced abuse)
their goal is to focus directly on intervention and target
chemically dependent individual who need treatment.
Assessment and diagnosis, referral into treatment, case management, reentry
What is the DARE program?
What are its strengths and weaknesses?
DARE (drug abuse resistance education):
Drug education program presented in elementary and junior high schools
nationwide by police officers
70% in school districts, 25 mil students, 44 foreign countries.
Short term: DARE improved students’ views of themselves and increased their sense of personal responsibility
The program has not yielded a measurable, significant change in drug use
Strong inconsistency between students’ self reported attitudes about use and actual drug use
One major problem:
found no significant difference in drug use between DARE graduates and students never
exposed to the curriculum.