CP_prob_pres - STAGES OF PROBLEM SOLVING • PREPARATION...

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Unformatted text preview: STAGES OF PROBLEM SOLVING • PREPARATION – encode the “problem space” and allowable “operators” – retrieve relevant knowledge from LTM • PRODUCTION – devise strategy for searching the space – implement the search • EVALUATION – has the goal been reached? – are you rpgressing toward the goal? UNDERSTANDING THE PROBLEM (Greeno, 1977) • Our internal representation (or model) of the problem should have – accurate CORRESPONDENCE between relevant elements in the world and model – good COHERENCE between elements in the model – appropriate links to PRIOR KNOWLEDGE that can aid problem solving environment model of problem correspondence coherence links to prior knowledge SOLVING SCHEMATICALLY “ODD” PROBLEMS • Monsters & Globes (Simon & Hayes ‘76) “odd” versions of problems are harder to solve: “exchange” versus “grow/shrink” rules • “surreal” problems (Hinkley & Hayes, 1977) • A boat takes two hours to steam 20 miles up a river but only one and a third hours for the return trip. Find the rate of the boat in still water. (original) • A wine takes seven years to mature properly from the time the grapes are harvested but only four years for the return trip. How fast would the wine mature in still time? (surreal) FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS Duncker’s (1940) CANDLE problem: attach the candle to the wall so it burns properly....
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CP_prob_pres - STAGES OF PROBLEM SOLVING • PREPARATION...

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