Ecohydrology_Lecture9_F11

Ecohydrology_Lecture9_F11 - Stream Nutrient Processing:...

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Stream Nutrient Processing: Spiraling, Removal and Lotic Eutrophication Ecohydrology Fall 2011
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Nutrient Cycles Global recycling of elemental requirements Major elements (C, H, N, O, P, S) Micro nutrients (Ca, Fe, Co, B, Mg, Mn, Cu, K, Z, Na,…) These planetary element cycles are: Exert massive control on ecological organization In turn are controlled in their rate, mode, timing and location by ecological process Are highly coupled to the planets water cycle
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Global Ratios of Supply and Demand – Aquatic Ecosystems
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Inducing Eutrophication Leibig’s Law of the Minimum Some element ( or light or water) limits primary production (GPP) Adding that thing will increase yields to a point ; effects saturate when something else limits What limits productivity in forests? Crops? Lakes? Pelagic ocean? Justus von Liebig (GPP)
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Phosphorus Cycle Global phosphorus cycle does not include the atmosphere (no gaseous phase). Largest quantities found in mineral deposits and marine sediments. Much in forms not directly available to plants. Slowly released in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems via weathering (and, not slowly, by mining). Numerous abiotic interactions
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Nitrogen Cycle Includes major atmospheric pool - N2. N fixers use atmospheric supply directly (prokaryotes). Energy-demanding process; reduces to N2 to ammonia (NH3). Industrial N2- fixation for fertilizers exceeds biological N fixation annually. (We do it with Haber-Bosch ) Denitrifying bacteria release N2 in anaerobic respiration (they “breathe” nitrate). Decomposer and consumers release waste N
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Global Nitrogen Enrichment Humans have massively amplified global N cycle Terrestrial Inputs 1890: ~ 150 Tg N yr- 1 2005: ~ 290+ Tg N yr-1 River Outputs 1890: ~ 30 Tg N yr-1 2005: ~ 60+ Tg N yr-1 N frequently limits terrestrial and Gruber and Galloway
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Watershed N Losses Applied N loads >> River Exports Slope = 0.25 Losses to assimilation (storage) and denitrification Variable in time and space Boyer et al. 2006 Van Breeman et al.
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Rivers are not chutes (Rivers are the chutes down which slide the ruin of continents) Internal processes dramatically attenuate load Assimilation to create particulate N Denitrification – a permanent sink Understanding the internal processing is important Local effects of enrichment (i.e., eutrophication) Downstream protection (i.e., autopurification)
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Nutrient Cycling in Streams Advection it commanding organization process in streams and rivers – FLOW MATTERS Nutrients in streams are subject to downstream transport. Nutrient cycling does not happen in one place.
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Ecohydrology_Lecture9_F11 - Stream Nutrient Processing:...

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