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06-Early+USA+food+industry

06-Early+USA+food+industry - Coffee today For North...

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1 Coffee today For North Americans, the world's largest consumers, Seattle is the new spiritual home of coffee, birthplace of Starbucks and many others. The café or 'Latte' culture which swept the USA and has dramatically improved the general quality of the coffee Americans drink. Coffee plants Coffee grows on large bushes or small trees that take 3-5 years to produce fruit Will produce for up to 15 years Coffee bean is the seed of the fruit Fruit develops over 6-9 months Two types grown commercially Coffee arabica Coffee robusta Roasting During roasting, green beans are roasted at ~400°F Beans become light and porous due to steam generated during heating. Characteristic flavor compounds develop. Flavor: Caffeine (bitter) Acids (sour and bitter) Aroma compounds (>100) Browned flavors from roasted carbohydrates
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2 What is Caffeine? Alkaloids are produced by plants and are usually derivatives of amino acids; many have a bitter taste. Many alkaloids have pharmacological effects on on humans and other animals. Caffeine: Sources: coffee, tea, cola nuts Theophylline: Sources: tea Theobromine: Sources: tea and cocoa beans (principle alkaloid) What is Caffeine? Naturally occurs in leaves, seeds, and nuts of >60 plant species chemical defense system Food Additive Flavoring Agent Bitter taste Caffeine Sources Coffee (Average = 100 mg / 8 oz.) Influencing factors: bean variety, how finely ground, and brewing time Espresso = 100 mg / 1.5 oz. Starbucks = 330 mg / 16 oz. Decaffeinated = 5 mg / 8 oz Caffeine Sources Tea (Average = 50 mg / 8 oz.) Influencing factors: type, tea leaf cut, and brewing time Average 8 oz. cup of tea = 1 mg theophylline
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3 Caffeine Sources Soda (Average = 40 mg / 12 oz.) <5% caffeine from kola nuts 95% added Americans get more caffeine buzz from soda than any other source Coca-Cola products are consumed at a rate of more than one billion drinks per day Caffeine Sources from other drinks Diet Coke = 45 mg / 12 oz Red Bull = 80 mg / 8.3 oz Jolt Cola = 220 mg / 23.5 oz Fixx Energy Drink = 500 mg / 20 oz Theobromine Toxicity Theobromine Highly toxic to dogs who don ± t have the enzyme to break it down Fatal dose = >200mg/kg Chocolate poisoning – dogs eat out of garbage cans or owners feed them candy
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4 Joseph Priestley In 1767, the first drinkable manmade glass of carbonated water (soda water) was created by an English clergyman and chemist, Dr. Joseph Priestley. Priestley is credited with the discovery of oxygen. Joseph Priestley also discovered hydrochlocric acid, nitrous oxide (laughing gas), carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. Coca Cola Early Soda Fountain History People would go to the local drugstore and procure a fountain drink to cure or aid some physical malady.
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