Lecture13 - MCDB321 Plant Physiology Feb. 24, 2011 Secondary

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MCDB321 Plant Physiology Feb. 24, 2011 Secondary metabolites/Plant Defense 1. Secondary metabolites/allelopathy 2. Insect-plant interaction Salivary-induced defense Wounding-induced defense (JA) 3. Defense against pathogens PAMP-initiated basal defense (AP R-gene mediated defense Systemic-acquired resistance (SAR)
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Why study plant defense? 1. 80% of total calories consumed by human population come from 1. 80% of total calories consumed by human population come from only six crops: wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc only six crops: wheat, rice, maize, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc 2. 2. Insect herbivory alone accounts for ~15% of all crop losses worldwide A. cause crop loss through feeding on leaves, flowers, fruit or seed. B. a subset of insects damages crops indirectly, through transmission of plant viruses, resulting in reduced yield and crop quality 3. We lose 12% of total crop yields to 3. We lose 12% of total crop yields to pathogen infection pathogen infection alone– alone– equivalent to nine hundred million tons worldwide annually equivalent to nine hundred million tons worldwide annually
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Types of plant defense Constitutive: always present in plants mechanical digestibility reducers toxins/antimicrobial compounds Induced: (involving signaling process) synthesized/mobilized to the injured/attacked sites 2nd metabolites induced morphological/physiological changes
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Plant have many external structural defenses that discourage herbivory 1. Compounds released onto plant surface 2. Leaves/stem covered with sharp spines/trichomes 3. Branching pattern/leaf arrangement 4. camouflage
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Plants produce a large, diverse array of organic compounds ( secondary metabolites ) that have no direct functions in growth and development 1. Restricted distribution 2. Play important ecological functions A. protection against being eaten or infected B. attractants for pollination and seed dispersal C. agents of plant-plant interaction 3. Three major classes
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Lecture13 - MCDB321 Plant Physiology Feb. 24, 2011 Secondary

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