Unformatted text preview: Review questions for lectures 10 ‐ 18 1. Describe how Locusta exposed Emperor Claudius to the deadly poison found in the death cap. 2. Recent immigrants may be at higher risk of mushroom poisonings, why? 3. People can become ill from eating mushrooms that contain no toxins. Name three possible causes for the illness in this case. 4. Why is it a good practice to cook mushrooms before eating them? 5. Name four characteristics that would be diagnostic of an Amanita mushroom. 6. Amatoxins are both heat and acid‐stable. Why do these two characteristics make amatoxins more likely to poison people? 7. What is meant by the term LD50? 8. Amatoxins are known as protoplasmic toxins because they kill cells. How do amatoxins kill cells? 9. What is the most likely cause of death in a person who has eaten an amatoxin containing mushroom? 10. A person poisoned by eating a death cap may be asked to drink activated charcoal suspended in water. Why? 11. How does an Intravenous treatment with penicillin help to prevent liver failure in victims of amatoxin poisoning? 12. People who receive treatment within 30 hours of consuming a poisonous mushroom will most likely survive, whereas those treated > 60 hour after eating a poisonous mushroom often die. How would you set up a retrospective study to confirm the benefits of early treatment? 13. Why might a person get sick if they drink alcohol soon after eating an inky cap mushroom? 14. Why is it advisable to use a local field guide for identifying mushrooms? 15. Why is it important to collect the entire mushroom, rather than just breaking it off where it emerges from the soil? 16. Describe the relationship between the matsutake mushroom and the candy cane plant. 17. What is a lobster mushroom? 18. Button mushrooms and oyster mushrooms are both popular edibles. When these fungi are produced in culture, what are they grown on? 19. What is the difference between a button mushroom and a Portobello mushroom? 20. What important nutrients can be obtained from eating mushrooms? 21. What common symptoms can result from eating the fly agaric? 22. Describe the manner in which hallucinations are reported to have occurred in people who consumed the fly agaric. 23. Muscimol is the most common psychoactive compound found in the fly agaric. What are possible neurological effects of muscimol? 24. Describe how the fly agaric was used by Norse warriors known as Berserkers. 25. What is a shaman and what responsibilities did a shaman have for his or her community? 26. Explain how it may be possible for the same mushroom to have very different effects on different people. 27.What archaeological evidence supports ancient use of mushrooms by native peoples in Mesoamerica? 28. Under what circumstances would it be legal to possess and consume the peyote cactus in the United States? 29. What is Teonanácatl? 30. Why was the CIA interested in Psilocybe mushrooms? 31. Psilocin is the active ingredient in the Psilocybe mushroom ‐ what is the basis for the hallucinogenic effects of psilocin? 32. Yeasts are referred to as facultative anaerobes. What does that mean? 33. In making wine, grapes are crushed and not sterilized before the fermentation begins. How does the lack of pre‐fermentation sterilization contribute to year‐to‐year variation in wine? What else contributes to year‐to‐year variation in wine? 34. Why is the alcohol content higher in wine than in beer? 35. What is meant by the term late harvest wine? 36. What is meant by the term Botrytized wine? 37. If you were a grape grower and wanted to prevent the problem known as bunch rot, caused by Botrytis, what would you do? 38. What evidence supports the proposition that people in Egypt began making leavened bread about 3500 years ago? 39. In making bread, yeast is incorporated into the dough. What does the yeast do that is important for the final product? 40. Why is bread not alcoholic? 41. What is the difference between a lager and ale strain of yeast? 42. What is ‘malting’ and why is it a necessary step in making beer? 43. What is Lambic beer and how is it different from other beers? 44. The degradation of humulone (an ingredient of hops) by light can result in formation of mercaptan, which imparts a skunky flavor to beer. Beer makers have found two ways to prevent this problem. What are they? 45. Tempeh is made from soybeans that are fermented by the fungus, Rhizopus. How does the growth of Rhizopus make tempeh a better food for people than un‐fermented soybeans? 46. If you were making cheese and you wanted to use an enzyme (protease) to improve the yield of protein obtained from milk but you did not want to kill a calf to get this enzyme, what other options would be available to you? 47. In making Roquefort cheese, inoculated curds are maintained under conditions of high salt, low pH and low temperature. Why? 48. How does the growth of Penicillium roquefortii in milk curds affect the character of the final product? ...
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- Fall '08