[email protected]_20111129_123950 (1)

[email protected]_20111129_123950 (1) - The “Darwinian”...

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Unformatted text preview: The “Darwinian” Proposal: Humans share biological andgenetic ancestry with other forms of life. ‘Our closest living relatives are the great apes-(orangutans, gorillas, Chimpanzees, ' and benobos);§ Humans and apes’sliare a common ancestor. ,\, [‘Ways to Test the-Etiolutionary Proposal: ' l 1. "FOSSILRBCORD. if the proposal is. correct, thenthere should be iossil remains ' documenting the history of the group's involVed. These must appear an evolutionarily- consistent sequence: [from more primitive forms “progressively” to modern forms. \ f 2.. RELATIVE DATING. The more primitive forms must be found in strata older (lower down a in the geological column) and advanced forms in more recent (higher) strata.- The fossil forms should be generally “pro gressive’? through the strata. ’ i ' ‘ ‘ ‘ r 3. ‘ABSOLUTE? DATING; Independent of their position in the strata, more primitive forms should show mere ancient ages than the more advanced forms. Again, the ages of these forms should be “progressive,” firorn primitive to modern.- l ‘ I 4. CULTURAL ARTIFACTS: Independent of the fossils themselves, if humans have aiprimitivei to advanced history, then their artifacts (i.e., tools, weapons) must follow a complementary ~ ' pattern: simple to complex. These also must fit an evolutibnarily—sensflnle series in the strata and . be independently dated by both relativeand ‘absolutei means. ‘ ' ' \ 5. GENETIC SYSTEM: lfthe proposal is correct, then the human genetic system must be one that is derivable from other forms of life. Further, it is likely that genes, alleles, or groups of genes, Sections of chromosomes, etc, may, exist, which are remnants ofprevions ancestry. This. is to say, their existence finds no worthy explanation other than an evolutionary one. These may. be phenotypically manifest (as in vestiges or atavisms), or they may be discoverable only by molecular analysis. But the genetic system must be derivable. fier’n other forms of life.‘ 6. OTHERS: Millions of Years Ago H. sapiens [Worldwide] 25¢ H. neanderthalensis [Europe and Western Asia] I H. anteces‘sar' "lv' [Spain] H. habms ‘ SPECULATIVE FAMILY TREE shows the variety ofhominid species that have populated the planet—some identified by only a fragment, others known to exis’; for a specific time ii? E period [solidi/hes}. The emergence ofH. sapiens has not ' l been a single, linear transformation of one species into Sahelanzhropus _ another but rather a meandering, muitifaCeteg evolution. tchodensis ' ‘ ' ' " ‘ [Chad] ' ZB SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN (Den is mm.) "M rs. X? befi from wwwsciameom, or l-‘r. @ioresienasfi) FID'TS, Indonesia . Source: Ian Tattersall, Once ' [We Were Not Alone, _P Scientific American special 4. edition, New Look at Human Evolution, . 2003. Available pre-paid phone 5 15-‘699-3 739 Home , gauiengens'u . [Sub-Saharan Africa] I ‘ 7 K. rudob‘ensis E 49;, 5e$Il7€L ‘1" ‘ [Eastern Africa] E ‘ 3 5‘” Ag‘.‘ ca 2 E ' - ‘ _I.. .. . . Homo ergaster ' P. rabustus P- bDISEI, 7. 1.‘ [Eastern Africa] [South Africa] [Eastern Africa] .. : Au.»'africanus l' ' ' n 3 [South Africa] _ Paranrhropus : a »‘ ‘ aethiapicus 3 Au. garhi [Eastern Africa] 5 [Ethiopia] A Au. burelg’hazali '“ ..i n. “Iva “In [Chad] ' v :’ Au. afarensis w ' H ‘ 4 platyaps [Ethiopia and 7‘ Australopithecus 3 ‘ [Kenya] Tanzania] ' anamenSis E ' 'lKenUal '. Ardieithecus ramidus 5 E 1: [Ethiopia] i_ Drrorin tugenensis ‘3 ArdI/Hlééf “45 {Kenya} “ Imam Hm. I , 1% 5 ’4‘ [:4 e; 508. A .., n, vnuuunJin.nuc\muw. an; a :25: ’\ ‘E‘fifl p141 rr'P'!“ w." «an. - u—ubmd -m— ngJ -v (12114 q|4.1 £31.] :4” WE . cup» «PM .,..,,..uu _ limb in 'N _ u a- v 999w." wuwuvr: . (A it"s: FE: 5:! 16 17 ‘ " ’ 18 19 ' 20 , 21 Fig. 2. Schematic representation of late prophase chromosomes of man and chimpanzee arranged to show maximum homology with the human chromosome complement. The chromosomes of man are shown on the left and those of chimpanzee on the right. The, human chromosome mammminm..- W... "W": A- +1.”, Auk? A; pnnMfin own-manque Pkrnmncnmb hands: tn farflirsma a cnmnnrafiva ana1vsix of hreaknoints and structural ../ . . . . . . — 1.....-_ anmn‘amnn“ Emu—Dnuuxrd-HIHEEEHB _ a -. mun-.1. EIEEMFS PE: Eilinunun Fan... aim-:5 m 2 H Gig-xiiglirda e Emu—unsaniiifiumd 2 Ewing—Hannahifiu x .E..._..1.IE. Y m m . . minim-XHEHHEE 1. Fan EEQEDE 891..., . m. a m . , 8.21m fl nip-EM... . 1m: m m w ._ ,aafi...._:.m1._zkl:1. .11.... a: z 2. I. 1 .11 1 1.... _ .1 _ 2 _2MZ§ _.w1_7 _a . W .._I H.1m1l a s d a _ 1 1 z . m m f _ . w... m— S m , 1.x. m h i 5 _ . inn-161.6 m .c 1 .afiu-HHHIZ m .1 19m m ; film-E. . m. m w w .. m a n 1 1 e f g e z o e i . . m l C . m. .m 1 s . 63:5 m. w o . REHE- 1 m, o m E 1 a 29:5. 2 m. e c a. ...:_-.._.U N. M g .imm-Iwfl-umuH-U .HHXH-UO. m _ . .. . . gum—fl.- ..Elj1 9 DHHXHIH-U o w .HEI-umu-MEHEMU .HIHXHE 2 m 1 :11 Elm . . . 1 uHXw-Mfl m 1.531. .1.» 3.... Lnfflnm:nJHMW—1WIAMIM_1 . m . . . . . .. w aging-U . . RiwlufiwbflE-HHIHE . chi. ,_ . mHl-UU .m EDD; . 2 inEHFEHIH-lifi a . Iii—BEER“; 4. TIMI-UH. 9 W . Him—EH 1 . .. 1 . . .. 1 1 . , 1 111- -1 -1. 1. 1 IE , D fi.lHl,Efl...H-Fflm5 . @ FH=hEE1=HU 911.171- m EM] .1. 1 ENE-hut... , . m mad—9.... 5H1 Ztflcfl‘u .Uh .1— .m a , . ,_ a , ...!H E Eng—w , a ..lm..=fi§5.i5 film-I Ii... .5 M f. Egg-iifliflfi . . , . .. . . 1 . 9.1 flagging..— . . .Hllfluieia ni_gl1flml.nl.-H§.H. 7 a again—MED: 3 AIM-I Flu-u .8 . c. I Danna-mil:Wnflm—MVQMEEIHHIDE 1 . filmmEHIMI-Iun-HE-w _ o .Iw..=4..__12.5-5: _ 1 o SAM-I Iii: 1 HI .LEHHIMJJHI H . .. .-- . UP . . flmflmflwmamhimwwfiMg . . .........=w....nm_1m.—n:: .MEMIF 5.5 c. 3131.31.51. :“1._1.. 2.11.1. 1. ahw‘fin :EMNJflJ .12...._3.a: 1—..HW4—ih . P121 :...._41.3 2.1. . .11 1.12— 2 .1 1_.H.Eu_.1:|._ .6 .1. 1: . .1.1... , Tin .zw... 1’11” n . . . . o. . . D _ q t D G .1 LL. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/29/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Gates during the Fall '11 term at BYU.

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[email protected]_20111129_123950 (1) - The “Darwinian”...

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