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lecture 11 (10-) - Finishing Prokaryotes ARCHAE C D E F 2...

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Finishing Prokaryotes ARCHAE 2. size- 0.5-1 micrometer; 1/1000 volume of a eukaryotic cell C) Cell structure 1. no membrane-bound organelles 2. nuclear area = nucleoid 3. cytoplasm a) ribosomes b) storage granules c) enzymes 4. cell wall surrounds plasma membrane a) functions- maintains cell shape and provides protection b) peptidoglycan—sugars linked to polypeptides c) differences in cell wall composition – microbiology d) basis of gram stain i. gram positive- thick walls peptidoglycan pick up and retain stain penicillin interferes with peptidoglycan synthesis ii. gram negative – walls are thin layer of petidoglycon and does not retain stain outer membrane is thick and consists of LPS- lipopolysaccharide toxic component that causes fever D) reproduction 1. genetic material is in nuclear area and is in the form of a single, circular DNA a) maybe plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA that replicate independently i. nonessential genes ii. cataolic enzymes iii. antibiotic resistance b) asexual- binary fission 2. DNA replicates 3. wall forms (plasma membrane) 4. forms 2 cells E) Nutrition and Energy captures TABLE 25-1 1. Carbon source a) inorganic or organic i. autotrophic ii. produce their own organic molecules iii. inorganic CO2 b) heterotrophs i. organic compounds from other organisms ii. saprobe = dead material 2. Energy Source a) photosynthesis b) chemotroph F) Archae- 1. features
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2. extreme habitats a) extremophiles b) thermophiles i. hot 45 to 110 degrees Celsius c) halophiles i. salty ii. example: salt ponds = 20% salt d) methanogens i. produce methane gas ii. strict anaerobes iii. live in oxygen free environments iv. example: sewage, marsh/swamps, digestive tracts BACTERIA A) ecological 1.
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