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lecture 12 (10-) - Kingdom Fungi Chapter 29 I Intro A...

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Kingdom Fungi – Chapter 29 I. Intro A) mostly multicellular B) not photosynthetic C) absorptive heterotrophs 1. heterotroph- getting organic compounds from the environment 2. do not ingest their food, they absorb it 3. resource acquisition a) secrete hydrolases- digestive enzymes b) the enzymes break polymers down into monomers c) then, they absorb these monomers d) need moist environment 4. two main types of fungi a) some of them are saprotrophs – they use dead food i. they absorb their nutrients from non living organic matter ii. saprotrophs are decomposers (breaking down dead things) b) parasites – they get their nutrients from living food i. they absorb their nutrients from the cells of living hosts D) cell wall 1. comprised of chitin a) Nitrogen containing polysaccharide b) very strong, flexible, and durable 2. contrast with other cell walls a) in plants, the cell wall is comprised of cellulose b) in prokaryotes, i. in gram positive bacteria: peptidoglycan ii. in gram negative bacteria: LPS and a little bit of peptidoglycan E) body organization FIGURE 29-1 1. non-reproductive structures a) hypha(e)- basic building block i. thread like filaments ii. grow longer iii. secrete hydrolases b) mycelium(lia) i. tangled mass of hyphae c) types of hyphae i. FIRST TYPE: coenocytic hyphae not divided into individual cells hundreds and thousands of nuclei aseptate (no walls between all the nuclei) ii. SECOND TYPE : septate have septa (cross walls separating the nuclei) some of them are monokaryotic cell is haploid & has one nucleus some of them are dikaryotic cell is n + n two nuclei are not identical and they come from opposite mating strains iii. THIRD TYPE: perforate septa cross walls have a pore cytoplasm and organelles can move between the cells/pore but nuclei cannot move 2. reproductive structures a) most reproduce by using spores b) spores are produced either by
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i. aerial hyphae grow up into the air specialized to permit easy dispersal of spores ii. fruiting bodies
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