Tejas Patel Lectures 7+8 Outline 10/5/11 Enzymes + Energetics I. Energy A. forms: kinetic (KE), potential (PE) B. Laws of Thermodynamics: 1 st ) energy cannot be created or destroyed; 2 nd ) when energy is converted, some is converted into heat; 3 rd ) total amount of E in universe does not change C. Entropy (S): measure of disorder i. organized E is usable → low S; disorganized E is less usable → high S; S increases in universe D. cellular work: mechanical, transport, chemical E. E supply: PE stored in covalent bonds; KE releases when bonds break F. Enthalpy (H): total bond energy of a system (potential E) G. Free E (G): amount of E available to do work under conditions of a biochemical reaction i. related to S and H → G = H – TS or ΔG = ΔH – TΔS II. Metabolism A. sum of all chemical reactions; regulated → balanced internal environment; anabolism + catabolism B. exergonic reactions i. E released → PE reactants > PE product ; spontaneous → G final < G initial (ΔG < 0); catabolic → breakdown
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