Antibody (2) - the variable in which antigen-specific...

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Antibody-coding Genes Antibodies are globular complex proteins made by multicellular individuals in response to a specific antigen (a foreign substance that has labels saying "I am a stranger"). The cells making antibodies are lymphocytes , better known as white blood cells . Antibodies immobilize and destroy their specific antigens. A mouse can make 10,000,000 antibodies, more than the total genes of the mouse would suggest. Antibody proteins are composed of two long and two short chains. Each species has a constant region characteristic for the species and type of antibody. The other region is
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Unformatted text preview: the variable in which antigen-specific amino-acids are located. Susumu Tonegawa tested (and proved) an old hypothesis that the constant and variable regions of antibodies were coded for by different genes. Tonegawa's work further demonstrated that gene fragments in embryos are rearranged to form the variable (functional) genes. Eukaryotic Transposons Eukaryotic transposons resemble prokaryotic transposons in many features. Many eukaryotic transposons are first copied to RNA and then back to DNA before being inserted in a new location....
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