Blood Types, Rh, and Antibodies There are 30 or more known antigens on the surface of blood cells. These form the blood groups or blood types. In a transfusion, the blood groups of the recipient and donor must be matched. If improperly matched, the recipient's immune system will produce antibodies causing clotting of the transfused cells, blocking circulation through capillaries and producing serious or even fatal results. ABO blood types are determined by a gene, I (for isoagglutinin). There are three alleles, I A , I B and I O . Proteins produced by the A and B alleles are antigenic. Individuals with blood type A have the A antigen on the surface of their red blood cells, and antibodies to type B blood in their plasma. People with blood type B have the B antigen on their blood cells and antibodies against type A in their plasma. Individuals with type AB blood produce have antigens for A and B on their cell surfaces and no antibodies for either blood type A or B in their plasma. Type O
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