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Dark Reaction - The first stable product of the Calvin...

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Dark Reaction Carbon-Fixing Reactions are also known as the Dark Reactions (or Light Independent Reactions). Carbon dioxide enters single-celled and aquatic autotrophs through no specialized structures, diffusing into the cells. Land plants must guard against drying out (desiccation) and so have evolved specialized structures known as stomata to allow gas to enter and leave the leaf. The Calvin Cycle occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts (where would it occur in a prokaryote?). Carbon dioxide is captured by the chemical ribulose biphosphate (RuBP ). RuBP is a 5-C chemical. Six molecules of carbon dioxide enter the Calvin Cycle, eventually producing one molecule of glucose. The reactions in this process were worked out by Melvin Calvin (shown below).
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Unformatted text preview: The first stable product of the Calvin Cycle is phosphoglycerate (PGA) , a 3-C chemical. The energy from ATP and NADPH energy carriers generated by the photosystems is used to attach phosphates to (phosphorylate ) the PGA. Eventually there are 12 molecules of glyceraldehyde phosphate (also known asphosphoglyceraldehyde or PGAL , a 3-C), two of which are removed from the cycle to make a glucose . The remaining PGAL molecules are converted by ATP energy to reform 6 RuBP molecules, and thus start the cycle again. Remember the complexity of life, each reaction in this process, as in Kreb's Cycle, is catalyzed by a different reaction-specific enzyme ....
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