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Functions of Muscles and Bones

Functions of Muscles and Bones - around which concentric...

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Functions of Muscles and Bones The skeleton and muscles function together as the musculoskeletal system. This system (often treated as two separate systems, the muscular , and skeletal ) plays an important homeostatic role: allowing the animal to move to more favorable external conditions. Certain cells in the bones produce immune cells as well as important cellular components of the blood. Bone also helps regulate blood calcium levels, serving as a calcium sink. Rapid muscular contraction is important in generating internal heat, another homeostatic function. Bone Tissue Although bones vary greatly in size and shape, they have certain structural similarities. Bones have cells embedded in a mineralized (calcium) matrix and collagen fibers. Compact bone forms the shafts of long bones; it also occurs on the outer side of the bone. Spongy bone forms the inner layer. Compact bone has a series of
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Unformatted text preview: around which concentric layers of bone cells ( osteocytes ) and minerals occur. New bone is formed by the osteocytes. The Haversian canals form a network of blood vessels and nerves that nourish and monitor the osteocytes. Spongy bone occurs at the ends of long bones and is less dense than compact bone. The spongy bone of the femur, humerus, and sternum contains red marrow, in which stem cells reproduce and form the cellular components of the blood and immune system . Yellow marrow, at the center of these bones, is used to store fats. The outer layer of the bones is known as the periosteum . The inner layer of the periosteum forms new bone or modifies existing bone to meet new conditions. It is rich in nerve endings and blood and lymphatic vessels. When fractures occur, the pain is carried to the brain by nerves running through the periosteum....
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