This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.View Full Document
Unformatted text preview: membranes) that contains numerous hydrogen ions. This is shown in Figure 4 and 5. The energy for the pumping comes from the coupled oxidation-reduction reactions in the electron transport chain . Electrons are passed from one membrane-bound enzyme to another, losing some energy with each tansfer (as per the second law of thermodynamics ). This "lost" energy allows for the pumping of hydrogen ions against the concentration gradient (there are fewer hydrogen ions outside the confined space than there are inside the confined space). The confined hydrogens cannot pass back through the membrane. Their only exit is through the ATP synthesizing enzyme that is located in the confining membrane. As the hydrogen passes through the ATP synthesizing enzyme, energy from the enzyme is used to attach a third phosphate to ADP, converting it to ATP....
View Full Document
- Fall '10
- Biology, Adenosine triphosphate, hydrogen ions, substrate-level phosphorylation, ATP synthesizing enzyme, special ATP-synthesizing enzyme