Joints - muscles to bones). Bursae are small sacs filled...

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Joints There are three types of joints: immovable, partly movable, and synovial . Immovable joints, like those connecting the cranial bones, have edges that tightly interlock. Partly movable joints allow some degree of flexibility and usually have cartilage between the bones; example: vertebrae. Synovial joints permit the greatest degree of flexibility and have the ends of bones covered with a connective tissue filled with synovial fluid; example: hip. The outer surface of the synovial joints contains ligaments that strengthen joints and hold bones in position. The inner surface (the synovial membrane) has cells producing synovial fluid that lubricates the joint and prevents the two cartilage caps on the bones from rubbing together. Some joints also have tendons (connective tissue linking
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Unformatted text preview: muscles to bones). Bursae are small sacs filled with synovial fluid that reduce friction in the joint. The knee joint contains 13 bursae Skeletal Muscle Systems Vertebrates move by the actions of muscles on bones. Tendons attach many skeletal muscles across joints, allowing muscle contraction to move the bones across the joint. Muscles generally work in pairs to produce movement: when one muscle flexes (or contracts) the other relaxes, a process known as antagonism . Muscles have both electrical and chemical activity. There is an electrical gradient across the muscle cell membrane: the outside is more positive than the inside. Stimulus causes an instantaneous reversal of this polarity, causing the muscle to contract (the mechanical characteristic) producing a twitch or movement....
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Joints - muscles to bones). Bursae are small sacs filled...

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