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Kreb - phosphate to GDP The remaining energy...

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Kreb's Cycle (aka Citric Acid Cycle) The Acetyl Co-A (2-C) is attached to a 4-C chemical (oxaloacetic acid). The Co-A is released and returns to await another pyruvic acid. The 2-C and 4-C make another chemical known as Citric acid, a 6-C. Kreb's Cycle is also known as the Citric Acid Cycle. The process after Citric Acid is essentially removing carbon dioxide, getting out energy in the form of ATP, GTP, NADH and FADH 2 , and lastly regenerating the cycle. Between Isocitric Acid and α -Ketoglutaric Acid, carbon dioxide is given off and NAD+ is converted into NADH. Between α -Ketoglutaric Acid and Succinic Acid the release of carbon dioxide and reduction of NAD + into NADH happens again, resulting in a 4-C chemical, succinic acid. GTP (Guanine Triphosphate, which transfers its energy to ATP) is also formed here (GTP is formed by attaching a
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Unformatted text preview: phosphate to GDP). The remaining energy carrier-generating steps involve the shifting of atomic arrangements within the 4-C molecules. Between Succinic Acid and Fumaric Acid, the molecular shifting releases not enough energy to make ATP or NADH outright, but instead this energy is captured by a new energy carrier, Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). FAD is reduced by the addition of two H's to become FADH 2 . FADH 2 is not as rich an energy carrier as NADH, yielding less ATP than the latter. The last step, between Malic Acid and Oxaloacetic Acid reforms OA to complete the cycle. Energy is given off and trapped by the reduction of NAD + to NADH. The carbon dioxide released by cells is generated by the Kreb's Cycle, as are the energy carriers (NADH and FADH 2 ) which play a role in the next step....
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