Unformatted text preview: phosphate to GDP). The remaining energy carrier-generating steps involve the shifting of atomic arrangements within the 4-C molecules. Between Succinic Acid and Fumaric Acid, the molecular shifting releases not enough energy to make ATP or NADH outright, but instead this energy is captured by a new energy carrier, Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). FAD is reduced by the addition of two H's to become FADH 2 . FADH 2 is not as rich an energy carrier as NADH, yielding less ATP than the latter. The last step, between Malic Acid and Oxaloacetic Acid reforms OA to complete the cycle. Energy is given off and trapped by the reduction of NAD + to NADH. The carbon dioxide released by cells is generated by the Kreb's Cycle, as are the energy carriers (NADH and FADH 2 ) which play a role in the next step....
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- Fall '10
- Biology, Succinic acid, Citric acid