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Life in the Water - Corals were much restricted after the...

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Life in the Water The marine environments, following the rebound from the late Devonian mass extinction underwent changes, with crinoids becoming more dominant and diverse. The early Carboniferous is sometimes known as the "age of crinoids". The primitive, armored Devonian fish were replaced by more "modern" ray-finned fish. Invertebrates Fenestrate bryozoans were particularly common in the early Carboniferous seas. Archimedes , a corkscrew-shaped fossil, represents the secreted support of a colony of bryozoans that are usually no longer present. The so-called lacy bryozoans were among the first invertebrate groups to recover after the Devonian extinction. Brachiopods became increasingly important animals. The spiriferids that began their diversification during the Devonian quickly recovered from the Devonian die-off and resumed or increased their ecological dominance during the early Carboniferous.
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Unformatted text preview: Corals were much restricted after the Devonian crisis and the large reefs of the Devonian were replaced with smaller reefs known as patch reefs. The role of corals in these new reefs was much reduced from what it had been in earlier times. Crinoids were also important contributors to the building of these small reefs, as were blastoids, a similar group of echinoderms. Forminiferans , a group of unicellular protozoans that date from the Cambrian, developed a new series of forms with calcareous and porcellaneous tests (foram "shells" are technically known as tests). The fusulinids were a large group of foraminiferans that reached sizes of several centimeters in length. The fusulinids were very important during the Permian before their extinction at that period's close....
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