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Unformatted text preview: develop more efficient lungs. Gills Gills greatly increase the surface area for gas exchange. They occur in a variety of animal groups including arthropods (including some terrestrial crustaceans), annelids, fish, and amphibians. Gills typically are convoluted outgrowths containing blood vessels covered by a thin epithelial layer. Typically gills are organized into a series of plates and may be internal (as in crabs and fish) or external to the body (as in some amphibians). Gills are very efficient at removing oxygen from water: there is only 1/20 the amount of oxygen present in water as in the same volume of air. Water flows over gills in one direction while blood flows in the opposite direction through gill capillaries. This countercurrent flow maximizes oxygen transfer....
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- Fall '10