Phylum Kinetoplastida

Phylum Kinetoplastida - pellicle. They discharge long,...

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Phylum Kinetoplastida The other group within the Euglenozoa is the kinetoplastids. All members of this group are symbiotic, with some being parasitic. Trypanosoma is a kinetoplastid. Trypanosoma brucei is a trypanosome transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly; it is the cause of African sleeping sickness. Kingdom Alveolata The kingdom Alveolata was only recently recognized. The synapomorphy of this clade is the presence of small saccules (alveoli) below the cell membrane surface. Major groups in this kingdom are the ciliates, dinoflagellates and apicomplexans (a group of parasites that cause malaria and other diseases). Phylum Ciliophora The phylum Ciliophora contains about 8,000 species of ciliates. Ciliates move by coordinated strokes of hundreds of cilia projecting through tiny holes in a semirigid
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Unformatted text preview: pellicle. They discharge long, barbed trichocysts for defense and for capturing prey; toxicysts release a poison. Ciliates are complex, heterotrophic protozoans that lack cell walls and use multiple small cilia for locomotion. To increase strength of the cell boundary, ciliates have a pellicle, a sort of tougher membrane that still allows them to change shape. Most of the 8000 species are freshwater. Most ciliates have two nuclei: a macronucleus that contains hundreds of copies of the genome and controls metabolisms, and a single small micronucleus that contains a single copy of the genome and functions in sexual reproduction. Paramecium is a common ciliate seen by students in introductory biology classes, and is shown in Figures 6 and 7....
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Phylum Kinetoplastida - pellicle. They discharge long,...

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