Primates and Their Adaptation12

Primates and Their Adaptation12 - levels to their food...

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Ecosystems and Communities Food chains are simplifications of complex relationships. A food web is a more realistic and accurate depiction of energy flow. Food webs are networks of feeding interactions among species. The food pyramid provides a detailed view of energy flow in an ecosystem. The first level consists of the producers (usually plants). All higher levels are consumers. The shorter the food chain the more energy is available to organisms. Most humans occupy a top carnivore role, about 2% of all calories available from producers ever reach the tissues of top carnivores. Leakage of energy occurs between each feeding level. Most natural ecosystems therefore do not have more than five
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Unformatted text preview: levels to their food pyramids. Large carnivores are rare because there is so little energy available to them atop the pyramid. Food generation by producers varies greatly between ecosystems. Net primary productivity (NPP) is the rate at which producer biomass is formed. Tropical forests and swamps are the most productive terrestrial ecosystems. Reefs and estuaries are the most productive aquatic ecosystems. All of these productive areas are in danger from human activity.Humans redirect nearly 40% of the net primary productivity and directly or indirectly use nearly 40% of all the land food pyramid. This energy is not available to natural populations....
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