Protein Synthesi1 - larger subunit has two binding sites...

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Protein Synthesis Prokaryotic gene regulation differs from eukaryotic regulation, but since prokaryotes are much easier to work with, we focus on prokaryotes at this point. Promoters are sequences of DNA that are the start signals for the transcription of mRNA. Terminators are the stop signals. mRNA molecules are long (500- 10,000 nucleotides). Ribosomes are the organelle (in all cells) where proteins are synthesized. They consist of two-thirds rRNA and one-third protein. Ribosomes consist of a small (in E. coli , 30S) and larger (50S) subunits. The length of rRNA differs in each. The 30S unit has 16S rRNA and 21 different proteins. The 50S subunit consists of 5S and 23S rRNA and 34 different proteins. The smaller subunit has a binding site for the mRNA. The
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Unformatted text preview: larger subunit has two binding sites for tRNA. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is basically cloverleaf-shaped. tRNA carries the proper amino acid to the ribosome when the codons call for them. At the top of the large loop are three bases, the anticodon , which is the complement of the codon . There are 61 different tRNAs, each having a different binding site for the amino acid and a different anticodon. For the codon UUU, the complementary anticodon is AAA. Amino acid linkage to the proper tRNA is controlled by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Energy for binding the amino acid to tRNA comes from ATP conversion to adenosine monophosphate (AMP)....
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