Retroviruses - Virally caused human diseases include the...

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Retroviruses Retroviruses use RNA instead of DNA as their nucleic acid core. They also contain the enzyme reverse transcriptase , which will detranscribe the RNA sequence into a DNA strand. . Once the retroviral RNA and reverse transcriptase are inside the host cell, as shown in Figure 9, the enzyme reverses transcription by making a single stranded DNA from the retroviral RNA. Viral DNA can be integrated into the host DNA. It remains in the genome and is replicated whenever the host DNA replicates. If viral DNA is transcribed, new viruses are produced by biosynthesis, maturation, and release by budding. Retroviruses include HIV and also cause certain forms of cancer. Viruses and Diseases Viruses cause a variety of diseases among all groups of living things. Viral plant diseases can be controlled solely by burning those plants that show symptoms of disease. Viral diseases in humans are controlled by preventing transmission, administering vaccines, and only recently by the administration of antiviral drugs.
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Unformatted text preview: Virally caused human diseases include the flu, common cold, herpes, measles, chicken pox, small pox, and encephalitis. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. Vaccination offers protection for uninfected individuals. Frequent hand washing and condom use may help prevent transmission. Vaccines are substances that stimulate an immune response without causing the illness. Commonly used virus vaccines include polio, measles, and mumps. Antibiotics do not cure viral infections because viruses use enzymes produced by the host cell, rather than produce not their own. A few antiviral drugs are available that interfere with viral replication without interfering with host metabolism in cells free of the virus. Antivirals include for herpes and AZT for AIDS. Despite recent successes with antiviral drugs, vaccination and the prevention of exposure remain the most effective ways to deal with viral infections....
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Retroviruses - Virally caused human diseases include the...

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