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Shrubland - montane coniferous forest when near mountain...

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Shrubland (Chaparral) The shrubland biome is dominated by shrubs with small but thick evergreen leaves that are often coated with a thick, waxy cuticle, and with thick underground stems that survive the dry summers and frequent fires. Shrublands occur in parts of South America, western Australia, central Chile, and around the Mediterranean Sea. Dense shrubland in California, where the summers are hot and very dry, is known as chaparral, shown in Figure 4. This Mediterranean-type shrubland lacks an understory and ground litter, and is also highly flammable. The seeds of many species require the heat and scarring action of fire to induce germination.
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Taiga (Boreal Forest) The taiga (pronounced "tie-guh" and shown in Figure 8) is a coniferous forest extending across most of the northern area of northern Eurasia and North America. This forest belt also occurs in a few other areas, where it has different names: the
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Unformatted text preview: montane coniferous forest when near mountain tops; and the temperate rain forest along the Pacific Coast as far south as California. The taiga receives between 10 and 40 inches of rain per year and has a short growing season. Winters are cold and short, while summers tend to be cool. The taiga is noted for its great stands of spruce, fir, hemlock, and pine. These trees have thick protective leaves and bark, as well as needlelike (evergreen) leaves can withstand the weight of accumulated snow. Taiga forests have a limited understory of plants, and a forest floor covered by low-lying mosses and lichens. Conifers, alders, birch and willow are common plants; wolves, grizzly bears, moose, and caribou are common animals. Dominance of a few species is pronounced, but diversity is low when compared to temperate and tropical biomes....
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