The Brain - movement, posture, and balance. This region of...

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The Brain | Back to Top During embryonic development, the brain first forms as a tube, the anterior end of which enlarges into three hollow swellings that form the brain, and the posterior of which develops into the spinal cord. Some parts of the brain have changed little during vertebrate evolutionary history. Vertebrate evolutionary trends include 1. Increase in brain size relative to body size. 2. Subdivision and increasing specialization of the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. 3. Growth in relative size of the forebrain, especially the cerebrum, which is associated with increasingly complex behavior in mammals. The Cerebellum The cerebellum is the third part of the hindbrain, but it is not considered part of the brain stem. Functions of the cerebellum include fine motor coordination and body
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Unformatted text preview: movement, posture, and balance. This region of the brain is enlarged in birds and controls muscle action needed for flight. The Spinal Cord The spinal cord runs along the dorsal side of the body and links the brain to the rest of the body. Vertebrates have their spinal cords encased in a series of (usually) bony vertebrae that comprise the vertebral column. The gray matter of the spinal cord consists mostly of cell bodies and dendrites. The surrounding white matter is made up of bundles of interneuronal axons (tracts). Some tracts are ascending (carrying messages to the brain), others are descending (carrying messages from the brain). The spinal cord is also involved in reflexes that do not immediately involve the brain....
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The Brain - movement, posture, and balance. This region of...

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